Art (Unit 2)

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Unit II

Museums, Art Galleries, Exhibitions

 

Ex. 1. Practice the reading:

Museums of Moscow:

Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts — Музей изобразительных искусств имени А. С. Пушкина

Tretyakov Gallery — Третьяковская галерея

Pushkin Museum — Музей А. С. Пушкина

Museum of Moscow History — Музей истории Москвы

Central House of Art — Центральный Дом художника

Battle of Borodino Museum — Музей-панорама "Бородинская битва"

Andrei Rublyov Museum of Old Russian Art — Музей древнерусской культуры и искусства имени А. Рублева

Historical Museum — Исторический музей

Vasnetsov House-Museum — Дом-музей В. И. Васнецова

Anton Chekhov House-Museum — Дом-музей А. П. Чехова

Apartment Museum of Maxim Gorky — Музей-квартира М. Горького

Yesenin Museum — Музей С. А. Есенина

Museum of Literature — Литературный музей

Polytechnical Museum — Политехнический музей

Biology Museum — Биологический музей имени К. А. Тимирязева

Darwin Museum — Дарвинский музей

 

The first museum in Moscow (the Zoological Museum) was founded in 1791.

Today Moscow has about 150 museums. There are 12 million exhibits in them. 14 million people visit the Moscow museums yearly.

 

Ex. 2. Read and translate the text:

Государственный Бородинский военно-исторический музей-заповедник

The State War and History Museum-Reserve of Borodino

The State Museum-Reserve of Military History of Borodino is situated in 124 km west of Moscow on the field of the same name. One of the greatest battles was fought here on September 7, 1812. Mikhail Kutuzov led the Russian troops.

Nowadays one can see more than 300 monuments and historic objects on this field.

The foundation of this museum dates back from August 26, 1839. It has already celebrated its 150th anniversary.

The main monument of this memorial was built in 1839 on the territory of disposition of the Russian battery led by Rayevsky. It was a 30-metre stela. In honour of the centenary of the Patriotic War of 1812, 36 monuments were unveiled including that to Mikhail Kutuzov in the village of Gorky. A monument to the Unknown Soldier of the War of 1812 was established on the occasion of the 150th anniversary.

The field of Borodino with the total area of 109.7 sq. km was declared the State War and History Museum-Reserve in 1961. There are many portraits of battle heroes, Kutuzov's personal things, some pieces of French weapons, many documents concerning the history of Borodino in this museum. Now the State

War and History Museum-Reserve of Borodino is one of the biggest in Russian Federation. It co-operates with the museums of the same character in Bulgaria, Poland and Czechoslovakia.

 

Ex. 3. Learn the words and answer the questions:

troops — войска

defeat — наносить поражение

nowadays — в наши дни, теперь

unveil — торжественно открывать (памятник)

declare — объявлять

 

QUESTIONS

1.      Where is the State Museum-Reserve of Military History of Borodino situated?

2.      How many monuments can one see on this historic field? What are they?

3.      When was this museum founded?

4.      When was the main monument of this memorial built?

5.      When was a monument to M. Kutuzov unveiled?

6.      A monument to the Unknown Soldier of the War of 1812 was established on the occasion of the 150th anniversary, wasn't it?

7.      What kind of interesting things can you see in this museum?

8.      You like to visit museums, don't you?

9.       How often do you go to the museums?

10.  Have you been to this museum?

 

Speech Exercises

 

Ex. 1. Comment on the following situations:

1.      What do you feel when you look at an outstanding painting?

2.      How do you appreciate the paintings?

3.      What is the best way to make you take an interest?

4.      What feelings and emotions do you usually have visiting exhibitions?

 

Ex. 2. Points to render:

1.      What are the ways and means by which the artist’s painting is revealed and estimated?

2.      The best way to get understanding and enjoyment of art is to view many paintings.

3.      Great works of art seem to look different every time one stands before them.

 

Ex. 3. Speak about Russian painters. Do you know any facts about their lives and pictures?

 

Art Gallery

 

Ex. 1. Read and translate the text:

THE TRETYAKOV GALLERY

One of the best-known picture galleries in the Soviet Union and perhaps in the world is the State Tretyakov Gallery in Moscow. It is housed in a small but very Russian-looking building in the centre of Moscow, close to the Kremlin and the Moskva River.

The gallery takes its name from its founder P. M. Tretyakov, who began to collect Russian paintings in 1856 for the purpose of bringing art close to all the people. The gallery, with the excellent collection it contained, was nationalized in 1918 and since then it has received many thousands of works of art, making it one of the best collections of Russian painting. In fact its collection is now so large that a new building will soon be built not far from the Gorky Park of Culture and Rest, so that the riches it contains will be seen by still more lovers of art in the Soviet Union and abroad.

The gallery contains halls devoted to old Russian painting to the great painters of the 18th and 19th centuries, to great masters such as Ivanov, Levitan, Serov, Surikov, Repin, and to the Soviet period in art.

Probably the best known among the old Russian painters is Andrei Rublev. His "Trinity", painted about the year 1411, is remarkable because, although it is in the manner of the old icon painters, it is more humanistic and reflects in a new way the life and soul of the Russian people.

Tretyakov began his collection with the works of the travelling artists or "peredvizhniki", so it is natural that canvases of masters such as Kramskoy, Perov and Ge have a big place there. Well known to lovers of art all over the world are "Morning in the Forest" by Shishkin and "Ivan Tsarevich on the Grey Wolf" by Vasnetsov, both in the tradition of the travelling artists.

The Soviet people love the works of Levitan, who also took part in the travelling artists' movement. How colourful and Russian are his landscapes "Golden Autumn", "A Birch Grove", "After the Rain"! How sad is his "Vladimirka", showing the road of the political prisoners into exile in tsarist times.

Repin, to whom a whole hall is devoted, is one of the best-known of Russian painters. His works reflect the history of the Russian state ("Ivan the Terrible and His Son Ivan"); the life of the Russian people ("The Volga Boatmen" which moves us in the same manner as the well-known Russian song sung so often by Shalyapin); the working people's struggle ("Not expected"— the return of a political exile, "The Arrest of the Propagandist"). Repin is also famous for his portraits — self-portrait, portraits of L. Tolstoy, Rubinstein and others, which can be seen in the Tretyakov Gallery.

The many new exhibits the gallery has received since the Great October Socialist Revolution include works by painters of the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century, and especially canvases of Soviet artists. The gallery now contains many works by Ioganson, Gerasimov, Plastov and many others. These show the life and work of the Soviet people, scenes of war and of labour, political and everyday life, the efforts of the Soviet people to build socialism and a happy and peaceful life for all people.

The Tretyakov Gallery, besides the big collections in its halls, also organizes exhibitions in other towns and halls. Thus it continues the tradition of its founder and of Soviet culture by bringing real art closer to the people.

 

Ex. 2. Answer the questions to the text:

1.      What is one of the best-known picture galleries in Russia?

2.      Where is it housed?

3.      Who does the gallery take its name from?

4.      When did P.M. Tretyakov begin to collect Russian paintings?

5.      Why did Tretyakov collect Russian paintings?

6.      When was it nationalized?

7.      What are the riches the gallery contains?

8.      What great masters can one see in the halls of the State Gallery?

9.      Who is the painter of the best known icon “The Trinity”?

10.    What is this icon famous for?

11.    What canvases did Tretyakov begin his collection with?

12.    Who are the representatives of the travelling artist’s movement?

13.    What masters of landscape and portraits is the State Gallery proud of?

14.     Does the Tretyakov Gallery continue the tradition of its founder?

 

Speech Exercises

 

Ex. 1. Find in the text synonyms to:

a painter; to reflect; to contain; a landscape; a painting; to collect; to organize exhibitions.

 

Ex. 2. Say as many sentences as you can, using the following substitution pattern:

 

Gainsborough

is

an outstanding

painter of the

19th

century

Morland

 

a brilliant

 

18th

 

Reynolds

 

a prominent

 

17th

 

Van Dyck

 

 

 

16th

 

Michelangelo

 

 

 

 

 

Rembrandt

 

 

 

 

 

Bryullov

 

 

 

 

 

Shishkin

 

 

 

 

 

Surikov

 

 

 

 

 

Vasnetsov

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ex. 3. Use the following words and word combinations in sentences of your own:

well-known; to be housed; to be devoted to; a work of art; a real master of; a collection of the 18th century; to continue the tradition of; humanistic; to reflect; the life and soul of; to receive; Russian culture; close to people.

a gallery; the State Gallery; the National Gallery; the Tate Gallery; the State Tretyakov Gallery; the Art Gallery.

 

Ex. 4. Which is the odd word out?

a)      painter, photographer, potter, sculptor, sailor, weaver.

b)     drawing, painting, embroidery, needlework, sculpture, sewing, sketching, teaching, weaving.

c)      to colour, to dye, to read, to paint, to stain, to tinge, to tint.

 

Ex. 5. Translate the following sentences into Russian:

1.      It is housed in a small but very Russian-looking building in the centre of Moscow, close to the Kremlin and the Moskva River.

2.      The gallery was nationalized in 1918 and since then it has received many thousands of works of art.

3.      In fact its collection is now so large that a new building will soon be built not far from the Gorky Park of Culture and Rest, so that the riches will be seen by still more lovers of art.

 

Ex. 6. Complete the following sentences using the words from the text:

1.      The gallery, with the excellent collection it …, was nationalized in 1918.

2.      The riches it …, will be seen by still more lovers of art in Russia and abroad.

3.      The gallery … halls devoted to old Russian painting, to the great painters of 18th and 19th centuries, to great masters such as Ivanov, Levitan, Serov, Surikov, Repin.

4.      The gallery now … many works by Ioganson, Gerasimov, Plastov and many others.

 

Ex. 7. Translate into English using the vocabulary of the Unit:

1.      Я вижу ты интересуешься пейзажами Левитана.

2.      Ты заметил тот прекрасный портрет «Девушка в зеленом»?

3.      Коллекция галереи Тейта содержит работы Констебля, Блейка, Тернера и других британских мастеров.

4.      Коллекция картин Передвижников отражает историю России18 и 19 столетий.

5.      Какой уникальной древнерусской иконой владеет Третьяковская галерея?

6.      Общеизвестно, что это произведение искусства очень ценное.

7.      У них было много общего в изображении жизни и души русского народа.

 

Ex. 8. Say some sentences about the portrait given below:

Portrait of P.M. Tretyakov by I. Kramskoy

 

Ex. 9. Say some words about the gallery that he founded.

 

Ex. 10. Read, translate and learn the dialogues:

CONVERSATION IN THE TRETYAKOV GALLERY

"Ah! I see you are interested in Repin's portraits." "Yes, I like this one of Pirogov very much." "What I like about Repin's portraits is the expression of the eyes. Did you notice Pirogov's eyes in his portrait?"

"Yes, the eyes of a thinker and at the same time of a very human person."

"But you know that is noticeable also in Repin's other canvases. Take for example his "Ivan the Terrible and His Son Ivan". The tsar's eyes, which shine against the dark background, really reflect his soul: his horror because he has killed his son and also his love for the Russian state, which made him commit- that crime."

"I think you are right! The expression of the eyes is also very characteristic in such canvases as "The Arrest of the Propagandist"; strong will and readiness to die for his cause in the eyes of the man who is arrested, surprise, fear and hatred of the gendarmes in the eyes of some other people in the room."

"And what about 'The Volga Boatmen'?"

"I think their eyes show suffering, and at the same time their will to fight and to live."

"I agree with you. And I think that we can see in Repin's own eyes, in his self-portrait, the soul of a man who sees all of life, who understands his comrades and sees the good and bad in them. All that is necessary to paint such famous canvases."

 

SHORT CONVERSATIONS

1. "Hello, Igor! Are you going anywhere special?"

"I'm going to the Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts. There's an exhibition of French impressionists there."

"Oh, impressionists, naturalists, surrealists! I don't understand all those schools in art, I never go to such exhibitions."

"But you'll never understand art if you don't take any interest in it. I don't like all the modern schools either, but we learn a lot by seeing the world through other people's eyes."

2. "Hello, Raya! Where are you going in such a hurry?"

"To the Polytechnical Museum to see the exhibition of earth satellites."

"The sputniks? Now that's interesting. Is the entrance free?"

"Yes, it is, but there are always a lot of people who want to go. This evening is organized by our club."

"May I come with you?"

"I suppose so, if you want to,"

"Of course, I do!"

"Come on then, Sasha. We must hurry or we'll be late for the beginning."

 

Ex. 11. Reproduce the dialogues from Ex. 10.

 

Ex. 12. Describe your visit to a museum or an art gallery.

 

Ex. 13. Speak on the following situations:

a.   Your hobby is collecting stamps of Russian painters. You meet a friend of yours who is also interested in Russian painting. You describe your collection and try to get new stamps of Russian painting of the 18th and 19th centuries.

b.   You want to buy a birthday present for your teacher. You think a reproduction of famous paintings will be a suitable present. You discuss it with the shop-assistant what to buy and choose a landscape by Levitan.

 

Ex. 14. Make up a dialogue of your own using the words:

to notice; paintings by Shishkin; exhibition; master; tradition; natural; purpose; to surprise; special; manner.

 

Ex. 15. Look through the video-film “The Tretyakov Gallery p. I” and make the plan.

 

Additional Material

 

Ex. 1. Read and translate the text using a dictionary.

THE TRETYAKOV GALLERY

There are many interesting galleries in our country. The Tretyakov Gallery is one of the famous and well-known picture galleries in our country and all over the world.

The State Tretyakov Gallery is situated in a Russian-looking building in the centre of Moscow. This gallery is named after its founder Peter Tretyakov. He began to collect Russian paintings in 1856. He wanted these paintings to be seen by people.

This gallery and collections of paintings were nationalized in 1918.

The first works in Tretyakov's collection were the paintings of the "Peredvizhniki". The collector bought paintings "Morning in a Pine Wood" by Shishkin and "Ivan Tsarevich on the Grey Wolf" by Vasnetsov.

The gallery has got many halls. There are halls devoted to the great Russian painters of the 18th and 19th centuries. We can see pictures by such painters as Serov, Repin, Ivanov, Levitan and others. You can see the landscapes "After Rain" and "Golden Autumn". These paintings by Levitan are beautiful. I like to see his paintings because he is one of my favourite artists. I compare his painting "Golden Autumn" with the poem "Autumn" by Pushkin.

There are some paintings by Repin in the Tretyakov Gallery. His paintings are connected with the history of our country. For example, his painting "Ivan Grozny Murders His Son Ivan". There are some portraits of Lev Tolstoy and a self-portrait of Repin in this hall.

I like the painting "Trinity" by Andrei Rublyov. This work reflects the life and soul of the Russian people.

This gallery has many new exhibits now. You can see works of the painters of the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century there. I like works by Gerasimov. I think that he is a very talented painter.

WORDS

1.     Trinity — Троица

2.     compare — сопоставлять, сравнивать

3.     favourite — любимый

4.     painting — живопись

5.     exhibit — экспонат

6.     talented — талантливый

 

Ex.2. Answer the questions:

1.      Are there many galleries in our country?

2.      What is one of the famous galleries?

3.      Who was the founder of this gallery?

4.      When did Peter Tretyakov begin to collect paintings?

5.      Where is this gallery situated?

6.      How many halls are there in the State Tretyakov Gallery?

7.      What Russian artists do you know?

8.      Do you know the paintings of the "Peredvizhniki"?

9.      You like some landscapes by Levitan, don't you?

10. Why do you like works by Repin?

 

Ex. 3. Discuss the following statements:

a.       Genius does what it must, and talent does what it can.

b.      Genius is a talent provided with ideas.

c.       Genius is the capacity to see ten things where the ordinary man sees one.

 

Ex. 4. Comment on the following quotations:

a. “A picture is a poem without words”.

Horace (65-8 BC)

b. “All art is but imitation of nature”

Seneca (4 BC – 65 AD)

c. “A mere copier of nature can never produce anything great”

Reynolds (1723-1792)

 

Ex. 5. Look through the video-film “The Tretyakov Gallery (p. II)”

a.       Give your impression of it

b.      What new facts have you learnt?

 

Ex. 6. Practice reading the following words and words combinations. Learn them by heart:

outstanding - выдающийся

brilliant - блестящий

prominent - выдающийся

a painter - художник

a portraitist - портретист

a century - столетие

pastoral scenes - пасторальные сцены

nature - природа

landscape - пейзаж

sea-scape - морской пейзаж

genre scenes - жанровые сцены

still-life - натюрморт

battle scenes - батальные сцены

the artist's deep psychological approachглубокий психологический подход

enables him – дает ему возможность

to portray – изображать

to create – создавать

to impact – передавать

likeness – портретное сходство

a sinister atmosphereзловещая атмосфера

a true impression of the sitterправдивое изображение модели

enlivens the landscapeоживляет пейзаж

the ruins of the castleразвалины замка

a real masterpiece of world paintingнастоящий шедевр мировой живописи

 

Revision Exercises

 

Ex. 1. Say where they were born:

a.    (Kramskoy/Voronezh) was born in Voronezh.

b.    (Kiprensky/Petergoff)

c.    (Venetsianov/Moscow)

d.    (Surikov/ Krasnoyarsk)

e.    (Serov/St. Petersburg)

 

Ex. 2. Who was this painting painted by?

a.       “Ukraine Night”

b.      “The Vladimirka Road”

c.       “The Movers”

d.      “Hunters at rest”

e.       “Portrait of the Composer Musorgsky”

 

Ex. 3. Insert the words where necessary:

was housed; is situated; was born; is enriched; was trained; is occupied; are shown

a.         Tretyakov Gallery … constantly … by works of Russian and Soviet painters, sculptors, graphic artisis.

b.         It … in a small but very Russian looking building in the centre of Moscow.

c.         A.S. Stepanov … at the Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture by Sorokin and Pryanishnikov.

d.         A predominant place in Stepanov’s work … by autumn and winter landscape remarkable for their plain-air effects.

e.         Surikov … in Krasnoyarsk in the family of a Cossack.

f.           The Hermitage … in St. Petersburg and its art exhibitions … around Russia.

 

Speech Exercises

 

Ex. 1. Read and translate the dialogue

-         What do you know about Russian art?

-         I am fond of Russian avant-garde. The canvases of Tatlin, Malevich, Kandinsky do credit to our nation and traditions.

-         I wonder where Russian avant-garde art has ever been displayed abroad.

-         Yes, today Russian avant-garde art is being displayed in its entirety – both in Russia and abroad. Previously only the canvases of the artists of the 1920s were popular.

-         It must be very interesting.

-         You have said it. The exhibition usually attracts crowds of people.

-         Yes, even among very young people there are very talented and progressive artists. Their pictures give much food for thought.

-         Certainly.

 

Ex. 2. Speak about your last visit to the exhibition.

 

Ex. 3. Write down an essay on your impression of this exhibition.

 

Addition Material

 

Ex. 1 Read and discuss the text in a form of a dialogue:

The State Tretyakov Gallery is a museum of Russian art. It is one of the largest museums in the world.

The Tretyakov Gallery was founded by Pavel Tretyakov (1832 — 1898) in the middle of the 19th century. In 1856 Pavel Tretyakov bought his first two paintings: "Temptation" by Shilder and "Skirmish with Finnish Smugglers" by Khudyakov. This year is considered to be the date of the foundation of the Tretyakov Gallery.

Pavel Tretyakov is an outstanding person in Russian culture. He was not only a collector, but a patron of the arts as well. He was interested in painting, followed the development of art, believed in Russian artists and rejoiced at their success. Pavel Tretyakov decided to collect the most talented works of Russian realistic painters. The artists appreciated his attempt to turn his collection into a national gallery and helped him to do that. Pavel Tretyakov started with the pictures of his contemporaries and later began to collect pieces of ancient art as well. By the 1870s his collection contained more than fifty paintings. In 1881 the enlarged collection was opened for the public.

The canvases from the Tretyakov collection were exhibited not only in Russia but also abroad. So in 1862 three pictures from his collection were shown at the International Exhibition in London.

On September 18, 1892, Pavel Tretyakov presented his collection to the city of Moscow. Since that time the gallery has borne his name.

Pavel Tretyakov was a trustee of the gallery till his death. Then the management of the museum was given to the council appointed by the Moscow Duma. In 1913 Igor Grabar became the director of the Tretyakov Gallery.

In 1901 — 1902 the gallery building was reconstructed according to Victor Vasnetsov's design.

After the October revolution the collection was greatly enlarged by paintings from the Moscow Rumyantsev Museum, the Tsvetkov City Gallery, some nationalized private collections. Ancient icons collected by Ilya Ostroukhov were added to the stock. Later Ostroukhov became the director of the Tretyakov Gallery.

Nowadays the collection continues to expand. That is why it was necessary to reconstruct the gallery and to give it extra floor space. At the beginning of the 1980s the Tretyakov Gallery was closed for reconstruction work. Two more buildings were added to the gallery: the Depository and the Engineering Building. In 1994 the Tretyakov Gallery opened its doors for the public. Its interior is very beautiful. Several new halls have appeared. The conditions of painting storage have been greatly improved.

The Tretyakov Gallery is one of the largest research and cultural centres in Russia. Special conferences, lectures and excursions are arranged in the museum. It has its own restoration workshops, library and archives.

The Tretyakov Gallery possesses a very rich and fine collection of Russian art from the 12th to the 20th century. There are magnificent collections of icons, including an icon by Andrei Rublyov called "The Trinity", paintings by famous Russian artists such as Fyodor Rokotov, Orest Kiprensky, Karl Bryullov, Alexander Ivanov, Ivan Kramskoy, Alexei Savrasov, Ilya Repin, Nikolay Ghe, Vasily Vereshchagin, Vasily Surikov, Ivan Shishkin, Isaac Levitan, Valentin Serov, Mikhail Vrubel, Mikhail Nesterov and others, and a collection of Russian sculpture. Let us speak about some artists and paintings in the Tretyakov Gallery.

In 1863 fourteen painters — students of the Academy of Arts — refused to paint pictures on religious themes. They proclaimed a right to choose their own subjects for painting. These artists, headed by Ivan Kramskoy, left the Academy. First they organized "a group of painters from St. Petersburg" and then, in 1870, they joined the artists from Moscow to form "The Travelling Exhibition Society" (the peredvizhniki).

The leader of the peredvizhniki, Ivan Kramskoy, was a talented portrait painter. There are several works in the gallery painted by Kramskoy, for example "The Portrait of Leo Tolstoy". (Pavel Tretyakov wanted to have the portraits of the most famous Russian people in his gallery. That was why he commissioned the artists to paint their portraits.) This is one of the best portraits of the writer. We see a person of great intellect, a man who understands everything and who can create great works. Kramskoy depicted Tolstoy in the peasant's dark blouse, but this is not important to us. It is the man himself, his inner world that is important and interesting. Tolstoy took Kramskoy as a prototype for the painter Mikhailov in his book "Anna Karenina".

"The Portrait of Pavel Tretyakov" is another important work of Ivan Kramskoy. The artist depicted the founder of the famous gallery, a real Russian patriot who devoted all his life to Russian art. He is a very handsome man, his face is full of dignity and noble feelings.

Russian national landscape painting has its origin in Alexei Savrasov's works. In 1871 he presented his picture "The Rooks Have Come". This work was greatly admired by the critics. Savrasov chose a very ordinary subject for his painting: it is an early spring day; the rooks are nesting in birch-trees; we can also see a small church with a bell-tower, a few houses and grey snow that has melted in some places. The sky is grey. We have a feeling that the landscape is filled with damp spring air. The picture is painted in light colours. Pavel Tretyakov liked this picture and bought it for his gallery.

We can also see landscapes by Isaac Levitan and Mikhail Nesterov, historical and folk subjects by Victor Vasnetsov and Philip Malyavin, portraits by Konstantin Somov and Valentin Serov (the latter was an outstanding artist, famous for his splendid gala portraits), etc. The artists felt flattered if their pictures were chosen and bought by Pavel Tretyakov. After his death many painters presented their pictures to the gallery. Some of them painted great canvases specially for this museum. For example, (Victor Vasnetsov painted a great canvas "The Warriors".

We are proud of the Tretyakov Gallery, its superb paintings and talented artists.

 

Ex. 2. Speak about the Gallery, focusing on what you think is very important for the Russian people.

 

Ex. 3. Discuss in groups which paintings may be included in the list of 10 top canvases.

 

Ex. 4. Answer the questions:

I. Do you remember?

1.  "Who was the founder of the first gallery of Russian paintings in Moscow?

2.  What is the date of its foundation?

3.  How many paintings were there in the collection of Pavel Tretyakov by the 1870s?

4.   When was the Tretyakov collection opened for the public?

5.   When did Pavel Tretyakov present his collection to the city of Moscow?

6.   Who was the first trustee of the Tretyakov Gallery?

II. Recalling the facts.

1.  When and how was the Tretyakov collection greatly enlarged?

2.  When was the Tretyakov Gallery closed for reconstruction?

3.  What buildings were added to the gallery?

4.  What can you say about the Tretyakov Gallery after the reconstruction?

III. Thinking about the main idea.

1.   Explain why we consider the year 1856 to be the date of the foundation of the Tretyakov Gallery.

2.   Explain why the gallery was called after Pavel Tretyakov?

3.   Explain why it was necessary to reconstruct the gallery in the 1980s.

4. Enumerate the famous painters whose works are displayed in the Tretyakov Gallery.

IV. Are the following statements true or false?

1.  In 1863 fourteen painters — students of the Academy of Arts — refused to paint pictures on religious themes.

2.  In 1870 they joined the artists from Moscow to form "The Travelling Exhibition Society".

3.  Ilya Repin was the leader of this group.

4.  Ivan Kramskoy was a talented landscape painter.

5.  Alexei Savrasov was a famous portrait painter.

6. Valentin Serov was famous for his splendid gala portraits.

7 Victor Vasnetsov painted The Warriors" specially for the Russian Museum in St. Petersburg.

 

Ex. 5. Using the vocabulary from the text write the essay on what contribution Russian art made to the world art.

 

The History of Russian museum

 The State Russian Museum is home to the world's largest collection of Russian fine art. It was opened on March 7 (19) 1898 by decree of Tsar Nicholas II and was county's first ever state museum of Russian fine art, which was able to represent for the visitors the complete notion about history of it's development.

From the early beginning the collection was displaced in the Mikhailovsky Palace, which was built for Mikhail Pavlovich - the son of the Tsar Pavel I.Николай II

The nucleus of the Museum collection consist of oil paintings, sculptures, graphics, decorative and applied arts. In the hole it was less then 1500 units, which came chiefly from the Hermitage, the Museum of the Academy of Arts and from royal Palaces, and only to a much lesser extent from privet sources, such as the Prince Lobanov-Rostovsky collection acquired from his heirs. The Russian Museum collection almost doubled in size during the first ten years of its existence. Academy of Arts also transferred its collection of Christians antiques - five thousands units - including Novgorod's icons, wooden sculpture and examples of middle-centuries church art. The presented Lobanov-Rostovsky collection included the 95 portraits of Russian statesman of the 18-19 centuries.

Another source of acquisitions was the collection housed at the Alexander I Palace in Tsarskoye Selo (later it was added by the collection from Anichkov Palace). The substantial addition was the Nicolay Lihachev's collection of Greek and Old-Russian icons.

The remarkable extent of fine art works was presented to the Museum from the privat sources.

It is necessary to say that the Russian Museum did not suffered from the October Revolution. All the nationalized privet collections and individual works were placed in the charge of museums. During first decade after the Revolution the Russian Museum collection, including its picture gallery, were enlarge several times over their original size. Simultaneously with these increase in the Museum's holdings numerous works of art was transferred to central and provincial museums, many of which had just been established. The ties of the Russian Museum with the Hermitage and the Tretyakov Gallery permitted a mutually advantageous exchange of artistic treasures.

In our days the collection of the Russian Museum numbers some 400,000 works and covers the entire history of Russian fine art from the tenth century to the present day. It reflects virtually every form and genre of art in Russia, including a unique collection of Old Russian icons, works of painting, graphic art and sculpture, decorative and applied art, folk art and numismatics, as well as the world's finest collection of Russian avant-garde.

Since the 1976, the Russian museum has been a National center coordinating the academic and methodological work of all the art museums of Russia. In 1992, the President of the Russian Federation signed up a decree acknowledging the Museum as a special object of national cultural heritage.

The museum then became the owner of three more palaces in the centre of St. Petersburg, the Stroganov Palace, Marble Palace and St. Michael's Castle. Restoration work is currently going on in each of these palaces. Nevertheless, they all already house expositions and exhibitions from the collection of the Russian Museum.

 

Ex. 1. Read and translate the text using a dictionary.

 

Ex. 2. Put questions to the text.

 

Ex. 3. Make up a dialogue using the facts from the text.

 

Ex. 4. Describe the museum till the October Revolution in 1917.

 

Ex. 5. What can you say about Russian Museum in our days?

 

Ex. 6. What are your favourite paintings from the Russian Museum? Describe them if possible.

 

Ex. 7. Translate into English and reproduce:

1.

  Вы любите искусство?

  Yes, I do. I am fond of painting.

  Вы сами рисуете?

   No, I don't. But I visit art exhibitions, read books on art and collect pictures.

  Кто ваш любимый художник?

  Hard to say. I am fond of Malevich, Dali, Serebryakova and many others.

  У вас хороший вкус. (I appreciate your taste).

  Thanks a lot.

2.

— Кто ваш любимый композитор?

—Hard to say. I like Beethoven and Chopin...

  Я тоже. Кроме того, я очень люблю Рахманинова.

  I appreciate your taste.

  Популярна ли музыка Рахманинова в этой стране?

  Very. I mean among lovers of music.

  Мне кажется русские композиторы популярны во всем мире.

  That's exactly what I wanted to say.

3.

   I am happy to inform you that I have got two tickets for the art exhibition.

  Какой приятный сюрприз! Я предвкушаю эту выставку.

  I'll pick you up at 10 a.m. tomorrow. Does it suit you?

  Вполне.

4.

   Как вам понравилось посещение Русского музея?

   О, оно произвело на меня незабываемое впечатление. В Русском музее все прекрасно: как архитектура музея, так и великолепные коллекции произведений искусства.

   Да, вы правы. Интерьеры музея прекрасны.

 

Ex. 8. Make up your own dialogues using these words:

Word List:

1.             canvas — полотно

2.             to do credit to — делать честь к-л.

3.             to display — демонстрировать

4.             previously — раньше

5.             artist — художник

6.             to add — добавлять

7.             to attract — привлекать

8.             to do one's best — сделать все возможное

9.             an article to this effect — статья на эту тему

10.         to manage — удаваться

11.         to paint — рисовать красками

12.         to try — пытаться

13.         exhibition — выставка

14.         to be more exact — точнее

15.         I appreciate your taste. — Ценю ваш вкус.

16.         to depict — отражать

17.         to admit — признавать

18.         to have very much in common — иметь много общего

19.         gifted — талантливый

20.         to stage — поставить на сцене

 

Ex. 9. Translate into Russian and then try to reproduce it:

1.

   What do you know about Russian art?

   I am fond of Russian avant-garde. The canvases of Tatlin, Malevich, Kandinsky do credit to our nation and traditions.

   I wonder whether Russian avant-garde art has ever been displayed abroad.

   Yes, today Russian avant-garde art is being displayed in its entirety — both in the USSR and abroad. Previously only the canvases of the artists of the 1920s were popular.

   It must be very interesting.

   You have said it. The exhibition usually attracts crowds of people.

  Yes, even among very young people there are very talented and progressive artists. Their pictures enjoy great popularity. They give much food for thought.

   I would like to add that their canvases are colorful and expressive. Sometimes I can't tear my eyes from the canvas.

  By the way, is the name of Serebryakova familiar to you?

   Certainly. Her canvases are very popular in this country. Zverev, whose name was unknown several years ago, enjoys great popularity too.

  Where could I see his picture?

  There will be an exhibition of his canvases in autumn.

  I'll do my best not to miss it. Incidentally I remember a display of icons from Kiev in Florence in 1982.

   Did you manage to see it?

  I was lucky enough to go to that display.

  I believe you were greatly impressed.

  So I was. 107 paintings by 13th-18th century artists were on display in Italy.

  I've read an article to this effect in the newspapers. The display was dedicated to the Soviet leader's visit to Italy.

   Now you've said it I remember... It was a great success.

   It's only natural. Russian icons always enjoy great popularity.

2. Conversation in the Tretyakov Gallery

"Ah! I see you are interested in Repin's portraits."

"Yes, I like this one of Pirogov very much."

"What 1 like about Repin's portraits is the expression of the eyes. Did you notice Pirogov's eyes in his portrait?"

 

Ex. 10. Give your translation of these sentences:

1. He asked if the two would pose for him. 2. In the morning he would get up early and go up to the workshop to work up to breakfast. 3. He would get down his impression of the scene before him in a great rush. 4 He would sit at his window for hours with his pencil and drawing paper. 5. His hand was clumsy and stiff, but he would get the line he had in mind on the paper. 6. He was working all day long, but those sketches would not come right. 7. Our art should be an art of the people.

 

Ex. 11. State the type of the conditional sentence. Translate into Russian:

1. If we pause upon the picture for a longer time, we cannot but be impressed by the sureness of the composition. 2. Every man would be a Michelangelo or a Rubens if wishes were artists. 3. He would have been a great artist, if he had only learned how to draw.

 

Ex. 12. Translate the following into English.

1. Он знал цену того, что он делал в искусстве. 2. А что, если он ошибался? 3. Я не был уверен, прав ли он, поступая так. 4. Художник считал целью своей жизни изображение человека и его характера. 5. Голова была нарисована великолепно. 6. Мастер изобразил ее так, как видел. 7. Мальчик не знал, как трудно рисовать живую модель. 8. Если бы он хотел стать художником, он бы учился рисовать. 9. Сочетание света и тени в картине замечательно. 10. Микеланджело был изумительный мастер рисунка.

 

Ex 13. Look at the painting and answer the questions:

Иван Аргунов - Портрет крестьянки в русском костюме [1784]
I. Argunov: Portrait of a Peasant Woman in Russian Costume (1784)

I. Argunov: Portrait of a Peasant Woman in Russian Costume (1784)

 

1.      Who is the artist of this picture?

2.      What genre does this painting belong to?

3.      How is the canvas called?

4.      Is it a well-known picture?

5.      Is Argunov a famous Russian artist of the 19th century?

6.      Did the artist’s deep psychological approach help him to create a true impression of the sitter?

7.      Do you like this portrait?

8.      What is her figure dressed in?

9.      How does Argunov depict this woman?

10.  What facts of Argunov life do you know?

 

Ex. 13. Look at the following picture and put your own questions to it:

Nesterov: A girl wearing kokoshnik

 

Ex. 14. Describe your visit to a museum or an art gallery.

 

Ex. 15. Make up a story using the words:

to notice, tradition, special, bill, natural, besides, exhibition, purpose, manner, master, to surprise

 

Ex. 16. Situations:

1. Your hobby is collecting stamps. You meet a friend of yours who is also interested in collecting stamps. You describe your collection and try to get new stamps of great Russian artists and museums.

2. You want to buy a birthday present for your friend. You go to the art shop to buy a drawing (reproduction) or painting. You discuss with the shop-assistant what to buy and choose a landscape.

 

Ex. 17. Describe the museum or art gallery in the centre of your region.

 

Ex. 18. Ask your classmates questions about the art galleries and museums in Moscow and St. Petersburg.

 

Ex. 19. Look attentively at the picture of Grand Palace in Pavlovsk.

Try to describe the picture and exchange your opinions through the dialogue of your own. Use the information from the text given below.

 

Павловский дворец
The Pavlovsk Palace

 

THE PAVLOVSK PALACE

The architectural and artistic ensemble of Pavlovsk is with good reason considered a gem in the necklace of palaces and parks around St. Petersburg.

Many talented architects, sculptors and painters, active in Russia in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries — Ch. Cameron, V. Brenna, G. Quarenghi, A. Voronikhln and C. Rossi; I. Prokofiev, I. Marios, M. Kozlovsky and V. Demuth-Malinovsky; A. Martynov, G. Scotti, J. Mettenleiter, P. Gonzaga and others — contributed to its creation.

However different they were in their endowments, they still created the Pavlovsk Palace in a uniform scheme of the Classical style, carefully designing and executing all the elements of the decor of the Palace's facades and interiors, and at the same time revealed their creative individualities.

The Palace, Paul I's summer country residence, the compositional centre of a huge park (GOO hectares in area), was built and decorated in the course of fifty years, from 1782 to 1824.

The characteristic feature of the Pavlovsk Palace, this outstanding monument of Russian culture of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, is the noble simplicity and austere clarity of its architectural proportions and the restrained solemnity of its artistic decoration. Another distinctive feature of the Palace is that its halls and rooms are diverse both in their designs (large and small, round, rectangular and semicircular, with niches and columns) and in the kind of wall decoration (artificial marble, painting, decorative textiles and tapestries). Still another, a very important feature, is that the classical finish of the Palace's architectural decoration perfectly blends with the superb furnishings of its halls and rooms: furniture, bronzes, textiles, porcelain, glass, coloured stoneware, paintings and other collections of works by Russian and foreign artists and craftsmen. Most of these are unique examples of art, which together with the exquisite interior decoration make Pavlovsk, in the words of A. Lunacharsky, “a monument which can be rivalled by a few in Europe”.

In 1918 the Pavlovsk Palace became a state museum and an important cultural centre, where large-scale research and educational work was carried out and various exhibitions were held.

Heavily damaged during the years of the Nazi occupation, Pavlovsk soon began to heal its wounds. Many designing and building organizations of St. Petersburg, restoration workshops, talented artists and craftsmen, took part in the reconstruction of the Palace and the Park.

The enormous creative effort, up-to-date scientific methods of restoration and great patriotic enthusiasm of the staff and many thousands of workers of St. Petersburg plants and factories have reborn the magnificent architectural monument to a new life, and now it can regarded as a monument not only of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, but of the Soviet period too.

 

Ex. 20. Answer the questions:

1.      What is gem in the necklace of palaces and parks around St. Petersburg?

2.      What talented architects, sculptors and painters contributed to the Pavlovsk Palace?

3.      How long did it take to build and decorate Paul I's summer country residence?

4.      What is the characteristic feature of the Pavlovsk Palace?

5.      When did the Pavlovsk Palace become a state museum?

6.      Are various exhibitions held there?

7.      Was it heavily damaged during the Nazi occupation?

8.      Many talented artists and craftsmen took part in the reconstruction of the Palace, didn’t they?

9.      What has reborn the magnificent architectural monument to a new life?

10.  Have you ever been to the Pavlovsk Palace? Did you like it?

11.  What can you say about the halls and rooms of the Palace?

12.  What kind of wall decoration is possible to see there?

13.  What does furnishings of the halls and rooms consist of?

14.  Is it a real monument rivalled by a few in Europe?

15.  Are you proud of this Russian heritage?

 

Ex. 21. Look at the pictures, describe the halls and say some words about the architect and sculptors who created the Pavlov’s palace.

 

Картинная галерея. Архитектор В. Бренна, 1798 г.
The Picture Gallery. Architect V. Brenna, 1798

Картинная галерея. Архитектор В. Бренна, 1798 г.

The Picture Gallery. Architect V. Brenna, 1798

 

Тронный зал. Архитектор В. Бренна, 1798 г. Скульпторы: М. Козловский и И. Мартос
The Throne Room. Architect V. Brenna, 1798. Sculptors: M. Kozlovsky and I. Martos

Тронный зал. Архитектор В. Бренна, 1798 г. Скульпторы: М. Козловский и И. Мартос

The Throne Room. Architect V. Brenna, 1798. Sculptors: M. Kozlovsky and I. Martos

 

Ex. 22. Look at this picture.

This is Kuskovo Estate Museum of the 18th century. (Государственный музей керамики и усадьба Кусково 18 века).

Kuskovo Estate Museum of the 18th century.
Государственный музей керамики и усадьба Кусково 18 века.

Архитектурно-парковый ансамбль «Кусково» — один из памятников русской художественной культуры XVIII века, сохранившийся до наших дней почти в неизменном виде. Усадьба в Кусково создавалась графом П. Б. Шереметевым как летняя загородная увеселительная резиденция. Ансамбль строился и перестраивался, дополнялся и совершенствовался более сорока лет.

Старейшее здание ансамбля каменная церковь. Она возводилась в 1737—1739 годах и по своим размерам, архитектурным формам и декору больше напоминает парковое сооружение. Вместе с колокольней, зданиями кухонного флигеля и дворца церковь входит в ансамбль парадного двора. Высокая трехъярусная деревянная колокольня построена в 1792 году.

Кухонный флигель (выстроен в 1756 году по проекту Ф. С. Аргунова) играл в Кускове роль одной из стоявших обычно на отшибе «служб» при барском доме. Украшающие его три портика с колоннами по южному фасаду, нарядные наличники окон и дверей, балюстрада с декоративными картушами по краю кровли превращают подсобное помещение в полноправную часть парадного двора.

 

Ex. 23. Read the text and translate it into English.

 

Ex. 24. Put questions to the text.

 

Ex. 25. Describe the picture of Kuskovo Estate Museum.

 

Ex. 26. Make up a project:

a.       The history of Kuskovo Estate Museum.

b.      The halls and rooms of Kuskovo Estate Museum.

 

Ex. 27. Read the text using a dictionary if necessary:

 

VISITING THE EXHIBITION

Russia has rich heritage for art masterpieces. There are many world-wide known museums and art galleries. Among them the Tretyakov Gallery, the Kremlin museums, the Andrey Rublev Museum, the Historical and Russian Museums, the Kolomenskoe Museum, the Hermitage, the Yaroslavl Art Gallery and many others. The Abramtsevo Estate Museum has a long history. It look a long way but nowadays its art exhibitions are shown around Russia. And it always is a great success For example, this year a fine selection of paintings, drawings and sculptures by 20th century Russian artists is shown in Moscow. The history of the estate that eventually became a cult address for Russian artists goes a long way back. S. Mamontov, a patron of the arts, assembled there a large group of splendid artists. The scenery inspired V. Polenov's landscapes. V. Vasnetsov's 'Alenushka', I. Repin's 'Sand off for Recruit', and V. Serov's 'Girl with Fetiches' are present at the exhibition. Among most comprehensively represented painters is V. Rozhdestvensky. Still lives with fish and a 1938 silvery landscape of 'The Construction of the Palace of Soviets'. Two pictures by P. Konchalovsky under the same title 'The House in Abramtsevo' look up an entire hall. Apart from landscapes, the exhibition also has a fair number of excellent portraits and still lives of the 1910-1920s. The canvases by I. Mashkov and A. Lentulov are huge and ornamental In contrast, R. Falk's modest-sized paintings are devoid of flashy surface effects, reserved and multi layered The piece that stands out from the rest is Falk's watercolour 'Through the lives' (1957). It's a lovely subtly coloured painting.

 

Vocabulary Practice

 

Ex. 1. Find in the text English equivalents of the following:

произведение; музей-усадьба; многое произошло; большой успех; прекрасная подборка; покровитель; блестящие; окрестность; «В рекруты»; натюрморт с рыбой; полотно; акварель; изящная цветовая гамма.

 

Ex. 2. Supply the missing words and word combinations choosing among those given in the text:

a.       There are many world-known…

b.      The Abramtsevo Estate Museum has…

c.       It took a long way but nowadays…

d.      This year a fine collection of paintings…

e.       S. Mamontov, a patron of the arts,…

f.        Still lives with fish and…

g.       Apart from landscapes, the exhibition…

 

Ex. 3. Translate these words and word combinations and use them in your own dialogues with your partner:

the Kremlin museums; the Hermitage; a long history; to be shown abound Russia; and it always is a great success; assembled a large group of splendid artists; the scenery inspired; under the same title; canvases by…; the piece that stands out from the rest.

 

Comprehension Exercises

 

Ex. 1. Reread the text and answer the following questions:

a.       What world-wide known museums do you know?

b.      Do they show any exhibitions in the Abramtsevo Estate Museum now?

c.       Who was the patron of the arts in the Abramtsevo Estate Museum?

d.      What famous artists are closely connected with the Abramtsevo Estate Museum?

e.       What else apart from landscapes has this exhibition?

f.        Are I. Mashkov and A. Lentulov’s paintings exhibited there?

g.       Who painted the watercolour “Through the trees”?

 

Ex. 2. Speak about any artists, whose works are exhibited in the Abramtsevo Estate Museum.

 

Ex. 3. Find and describe any pictures these painters.

 

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