Ex. 1. Render in English
Передвижники - художники,
входившие в российское демократическое художественное объединение "Товарищество
передвижных художественных выставок" (ТПХВ), созданное в 1870 г. по инициативе
И. Крамского, Г. Мясоедова, Н. Ге и В. Перова. Первая выставка состоялась в
1871 г. Передвижники испытали воздействие общественных и эстетических взглядов
В. Белинского и Н. Чернышевского. Большую роль в формировании их творческой
программы сыграл критик В. Стасов. П. Третьяков материально поддерживал
передвижников, приобретая их произведения для своей галереи. Передвижники были
убежденными реалистами, а выдвинутая ими программа народности искусства
выражалась в изображении типических сторон и многогранных характеров
социальной жизни, часто с критической тенденцией ("Земство обедает" Г.
Мясоедова, 1872 г, "Встреча иконы" К. Савицкого, 1878 г.). Передвижники
показывают не только бедность, но и красоту народного быта ("Приход колдуна на
крестьянскую свадьбу" В Максимова, 1875 г.), не только страдание, но и
стойкость перед лицом жизненных невзгод, мужество и силу характеров
("Бурлаки на Волге" И.
Репина, 1873 г.), богатство и величие родной природы (пейзажи А. Саврасова, И.
Шишкина, И. Левитана), героические страницы национальной истории (картины В.
Сурикова) и освободительного народного движения ("Арест пропагандиста", 1892
г.; "Отказ от исповеди", 1885 г.; "Не ждали", 1888 г., И. Репина). Большое
значение в их творчестве приобретают социально-бытовой портрет ("Курсистка" Н.
Ярошенко, 1883 г.), пейзаж, а позже - историческая живопись, где главным
действующим лицом выступает народ ("Утро стрелецкой казни" В. Сурикова, 1881
г.). Образы русской народно-сказочной фантазии оживают на полотнах В.
Произведения В. Сурикова, И.
Репина, Н. Ге, В. Васнецова, И. Шишкина, И. Левитана, представляющие собой
вершины передвижнического реализма, отличаются свободной, широкой манерой
письма, передачей световоздушной среды с помощью рефлексов, цветных теней,
свободой и разнообразием композиционных решений. Последняя 48-я выставка ТПХВ
состоялась в 1923 г.
Ex. 2. Retell and discuss the
Ex. 3. Explain the following:
A painter is a monument to his work.
It is a sign of a real genius that it
remains up spotted by success.
Ex. 4. Answer the questions:
What do we mean by the word “peredvizhniki”?
Do you know who left the Russian Academy
of Art and organized the group of “Peredvizhniki”?
When did their first exhibition take
Who played a great role in forming their
Were they influenced by the public and
esthetic views by V. Belinsky and N. Chernyshevsky?
Who supported them buying their paintings
for his gallery?
What did they reveal in their canvases?
By what standards do we charge them and
Did social needs and technical skills
change from the 18th century?
What are the achievements of realism at
the end of 18th century and at the beginning of the 19th
Ex. 1. Arrange the following
in pairs of synonyms:
to realize; desire; actual;
man-made; discuss; to see; to reply; to express; to ask; to be acquainted; to
try; to produce; deep; sitter; to understand; wish; real; artificial; to view;
to leave; to answer; to convey; to inquire; to be familiar; to seek; to
create; profound; mastery; to argue.
Ex. 2. Arrange the following
in pairs of antonyms:
success; worthy; dependence;
happy; wrong; to neglect; richness; poor; easy; failure; worthless;
independence; unhappy; right; to pay attention; poverty; difficult; rich.
Ex. 3. Translate the following
groups of words into Russian:
to paint – painter – painterly
to depict – pictorial –
picture – picturesque;
to master – master – mastery –
to portray – portrayal –
portrait – portraitist – portraiture;
worth – worthy – worthless;
a water-colour/a pastel
a family group;
a ceremonial/an intimate
a genre/historical painting;
a still life;
a battle piece;
a flower piece;
Ex. 4. Read the dialogue and
reproduce it. Try to learn it by heart.
Hello! I’ve heard you are fond of Russian
painting. Did you go to the exhibition yesterday?
Yes, I did. It was devoted to those
realistic artists, who are known as Itinerants (Peredvizhniki).
I think up to the present day the art of
the Itinerants has been held in high esteem by the people. Their works
constitute the pride and glory of Russian culture, don’t they?
Yes, they do. Even in nowadays too there
is a continually growing interest in the art of the Itinerants. By the way
I’ve seen a lot of visitors at the art gallery.
But many pictures are reproduced in
editions that ran into millions. You can buy them in the book shops
You see, I prefer to see these canvases in
origin. I know many books have been written and albums published about the
society’s leading members, films have been made about them and even monuments
erected in their honour.
Yes, in schools all over the country their
art is a subject of study, isn’t it?
Yes, it is. I fully agree with you.
Frankly speaking I enjoyed the exhibition seeing the canvases by those famous
I would have visited the exhibition if you
had called me. The only thing I know about it is that the exhibition had a
If it were not raining, I would call you.
We’ll go to the museum next time. Agreed?
Sure. I’m looking forward to visiting this
place with great pleasure. See you then.
Ex. 5. Look at the pictures
and put 10 questions to each. Then try to describe the pictures.
Portrait of Peasant Mina Moiseev
И. Крамской Портрет Мины Моисеева (1882)
An Unknown Woman. (1883)
И. Крамской Незнакомка (1883)
Practice modal verbs
Ex. 1. Make suitable sentences
from the table below using can.
Going to the dentist
Meeting new people
E.g.: Travelling can often
Ex. 2. Rewrite these sentences
using may or might. You can use either
Maybe you are right. I can't
be sure. You may be right.
Perhaps George will help if
you give him a ring. ____________
Possibly it's a mistake.
Perhaps things won't be so bad
after all. _______________
It's possible that she won't
recognize you even if she sees you. _________________
Perhaps it's broken.
Now put the sentences above
into the past using may have or might have. _____________
Ex. 3. You hear a strange
noise at night. What do you think it could be? Write sentences using these
a burglar? It could be a
a wild animal? __________
one of the neighbours?
the wind in the trees?
a car passing? ______________
someone at the door?
a ghost? ________________
Kramskoy was born in 1837 in the town of Ostrogorsk, Voronezh Province, into
the family of a scrivener. From 1857 to 1863 he received training at the
Academy of Art in St. Petersburg, and in 1863 led so-called “Rebellion of the
fourteen”, when a group of young artists left the Academy after having
challenged the dogmatic tradition cultivated there.
was one of those who laid the foundations of the Artel of Artists in St.
Petersburg. He was also one of the initiators and the ideological leader of
the Society for Circulating Art Exhibitions. As an art critic and theoretician
he played an important role in promoting Russian realist art.
Kramskoy is an outstanding
portrait painter. His self-portrait (1867), Portraits of Leo Tolstoy (1873), a
portrait of the poet Nekrasov (1877), of the artist Litovchenko (1878) and
others have enriched the treasure-chest of Russian figurative arts. His other
significant canvases are Christ in the Desert (1872), Woodman (1874) and Mina
Moiseev (1882). From 1863 to 1868 Kramskoy taught at the Drawing School of the
Society for the Encouragement of Artists in St. Petersburg.
Ex. 1. Read the text and put
questions to it.
Ex. 2. Select a reproduction
of a portrait painting by Kramskoy and discuss it according to the following
The general effect
The contents of the picture
The composition and colouring
Interpretation and evaluation
Ex. 3. Work in pairs. Persuade
your partner to agree with your opinion that life is made much more
comfortable if you regularly visit art exhibitions.
Ex. 4. Points for ponder:
A great painting enriches our experience
of life, just as a great poem does or a great musical composition.
Is the appreciation of pictures a special
faculty which only a few can possess
Ex. 5. Give Russian
equivalents for the following English proverbs and sayings:
When one loves his art no service seems
The devil is not so black as he is
When in doubt leave it out.
Art is long, life is short.
That’s a horse of another colour.
A thing of beauty is a joy forever.
Ex. 6. Read and learn the
words before the text:
closely connected with —
— талантливый художник
— выдающийся общественный деятель
earn one's living —
admitted to —
against smth. —
teaching methods —
traditional theme —
demand — требовать
satisfy demands —
right to choose —
— окружающая жизнь
— сторонники, соратники
leave (the Academy) without graduating
— позднее, затем
inspirer — вдохновитель
— создавать, творить
— полотно, картина
— «Портрет незнакомки»
"Christ in the Desert" — «Христос
"Mermaids" — «Русалки»
— проявлять большую способность (к
reveal the inner world — раскрывать
— (зд.) люди, с которых писались портреты
— бороться за
— важность для общества
— техника, мастерство
Ex. 7. Read and retell the
NIKOLAYEVICH KRAMSKOY (1837-1887)
and brightest period in the development of Russian art is closely connected
with the name of Kramskoy. He is known not only as a talented artist but an
outstanding art critic and public figure as well.
Kramskoy was born in 1837 in Voronezh Gubernia. His parents were poor and he
had to start earning his living very early. On arriving in St. Petersburg in
1857, he was soon admitted to the Academy of Arts. While studying in the
Academy he was against the teaching methods of arts and headed a group of
fourteen students who refused to paint pictures on traditional themes proposed
by their teachers. This group demanded the right to choose themes connected
with the life around them. Their demands were not satisfied, and Kramskoy
together with his supporters protested. They left the Academy without
graduating. Later on he became an organizer and inspirer of the Association of
Travelling Artists (Peredvizhniki).
created many great paintings which are an important part of Russian art. His
excellent canvases such as "The Stranger," "Christ in the Desert," "Mermaids"
are among the best treasures of Russian culture.
is also known for his portraits of his famous contemporaries: writers, poets,
painters and actors. As a portrait painter Kramskoy shows a great ability of
understanding and revealing the inner world of his models. He is a great
master of realistic and psychological portraits.
life Kramskoy fought for social significance, realism and technical skill in
art. The importance of Kramskoy as the leader of the Travelling Artists Group
and art critic is great. Repin spoke of him as a great Russian artist and
citizen and said that he deserved a national monument. Kramskoy's pictures are
displayed in the Tretyakov Art Gallery in Moscow, the Russian Museum in St.
Petersburg and other museums in Russia.
Answer the following questions:
What is the name of Kramskoy connected
When was he born?
Why did he have to start earning his
living very early?
Where did he study?
What did Kramskoy and his supporters
demand from their teachers?
What association did he organize?
What were his most famous pictures?
Why was he so important as a portrait
What did Kramskoy fight for all his life?
did Repin say about him?
are Kramskoy's pictures displayed?
is your favourite picture by Kramskoy? Why?
Ex. 1. Explain the meaning of
the prefixes in the following words:
unthinkable; unusual; unknown;
useless; shapeless; disproportion; impossible.
Ex. 2. Match suitable
adjectives from A to the nouns in B:
gradation of tone
Ex. 3. Make up sentences with
the following expressions.
Begin with: I admire; I
consider; I don’t think; I should say
brilliant execution; the
general effect is perfect and pleasing; the details are altogether imperfect
and unsatisfactory; to complete the details; to hurt the general effect; the
value of tints.
Ex. 4. Translate:
Я знаю, что вчера вы были в картинной
галерее. Вы получили удовольствие?
Certainly. I enjoyed every minute of my
Что вам больше всего понравилось?
It is hard to say. There are so many
pictures in the gallery that it is impossible to answer your question.
Я думаю, что в такую картинную галерею
надо пойти несколько раз. Вы согласны со мной?
Of course. I am going to the gallery
tomorrow. I want to see the canvases of Russian avant-garde art once more.
I'll be happy if you join me.
Ex. 1. Comment on the
No pains, no gains.
A good beginning makes a good ending.
Every man is an architect of his own
Jack of all trades and master of none.
Ex. 2. Points to ponder:
Some people live to create, some live to
It was Bryullov’s guiding thought that man
is the principal treasure in the world.
It is possible to have common standards
and yet disagree about individual art expression.
Ex. 3. Discussion. Answer the
Why is it important to study an artist’s
Does an artist use drawing only as a means
of preparatory work?
What characterizes Repin’s drawings (Serov’s,
Ex. 4. Read the text and make
up a dialogue about I.N. Kramskoy
Yaroshenko. Portrait of I.N. Kramskoi
Kramskoi has a place in the history of Russian culture as a talented
portraitist, historical and genre painter, theorist, teacher and fervent
opponent of dogmatism in art, and as one of the leaders of the Society of
was born in the village of Novaya Sotnya, near Ostrogozhsk in Voronezh
Gubernia; he was the third son of a town council clerk. After his father's
death, the twelve-year-old boy could no longer continue his education, and his
artistic interests, which manifested themselves very early, found no support
among those near to him. His fortunes changed quite by chance, after he was
recommended as a retoucher to a visiting photographer in Ostrogozhsk, Ya.
Danilevsky. In October 1853 Kramskoi left his native village with Danilevsky
and after itinerating around various Russian towns finally found himself in St.
Petersburg. Here he found employment with the capital's best photographer.
Denier. His new friends, young artists, spotted his talent for drawing and
advised him to study. In the autumn of 1857 he was accepted by the Academy of
Kramskoi's years of
study coincided with the rise of social-democratic thought in Russia. The
spread of the ideas of the revolutionary democrats — Chernyshevsky, Pisarev,
Dobrolyubov, Herzen — struck a chord in the hearts of the young
non-aristocratic intelligentsia, including the students at the Academy of Arts.
A group of talented young people formed around Kramskoi, who even in
Ostrogozhsk had been fascinated by the articles of the critic Belinsky.
every evening young people gathered in Kramskoi's flat on Vasilievsky Island.
In this little flat, something like a new Russian Academy was growing up, as
yet small, but which would later develop into a large 'Artists' Artel'.
the Academy maintained its former positions, but the bases of the old
aesthetics were crumbling under the weight of new demands. The antagonism
between the aspirations of Kramskoi's group and the traditional academic
system led to open conflict in the autumn of 1863. Fourteen competitors for a
gold medal refused to paint pictures on the required theme — 'Feast at
Valhalla' — and asked to be allowed to choose their own subjects. When the
Academy Council turned down their request, they left the Academy, headed by
Ivan Kramskoi. The artists were put under secret surveillance and the press
was forbidden to mention them.
the establishment of the Artists Artel; its leading figure was Kramskoi, the
initiator of the first art exhibition outside Petersburg (in Nizhny Novgorod).
The young artists' protest found a sympathetic response in democratic circles.
Kramskoi gave warm support to the Moscow artists (G. G. Myasoyedov, V. G.
Perov, I. M. Pryanishnikov) who were founding the Peredvizhniki Society
which for many decades following the signing of its Regulations in 1870 united
Russia's leading artists, and became a synonym for Russian realist art.
sensitive, highly principled man, Kramskoi was one of the leading figures in
the Peredvizhniki Society and became the
intellectual father of a whole generation of artists.