Unit I Terrorism
Школа — под охраной
Новый учебный год начался в школах Беслана с
опозданием на две недели. У входа в среднюю школу № 6 в Беслане. Эта
школа находится ближе всего к школе № 1, в которой произошли трагические
Ex. 1. Look at the picture and
answer the questions:
1. What event did you associate with this
2. How did you respond to the news on the
first of September in Beslan?
3. How did the images of this tragedy affect
4. What emotions have you experienced?
5. Do you feel safe?
6. What do you think the adults should do to
promote a feeling of safe?
Ex. 2. Describe President
Putin’s reaction to this tragedy in Beslan. How would you describe this tone,
his words and his demeanor? What steps was he taking to address the situation?
Ex. 3. Translate from Russian
Чечня - не Ирак.
Она важная часть нашей территории.
В своей подмосковной резиденции в Ново-Огарево
президент России Владимир Путин провел первую встречу с иностранными
журналистами и учеными после трагических событий в североосетинском Беслане.
В ходе беседы, длившейся больше трех часов,
Путин, как пишет английская «Гардиан», заявил, что принял решение о проведении
внутреннего, а не публичного расследования. По его мнению, открытое
расследование может превратиться в «политическое шоу». По словам президента,
он «хочет восстановить последовательность событий и выяснить, кто несет
Президент также особенно подчеркнул, что никто не
имеет права «советовать нам говорить с убийцами детей». «Почему бы вам не
встретиться с Усамой бен Ладеном?..»
По заявлению Путина, он рассматривает террор
чеченских исламистов, опирающихся на иностранных фундаменталистов, основным
моментом стратегии, направленной на подрыв ситуации на всем юге России и
дестабилизацию среди мусульманского населения в других регионах страны.
Президент также подчеркнул, что «мусульмане живут
на Волге, в Татарстане и Башкортостане. Чечня — не Ирак. Она находится совсем
рядом. Чечня — важная часть нашей территории, и в данный момент речь идет о
территориальной целостности России».
Ex. 4. Addressing the nation
in the time tragedy is something that many presidents have had to do. What do
you think goes through the chief executive’s mind as he prepares to comfort
the citizens of his country and assert a sense of control?
Ex. 5. Read the text and
translate it. Define the following underlined words and memorize the
Has Russia been attacked by
Yes. During the last decade,
Russia has been the target of far more terrorist attacks than the
United States has. Most of these have stemmed from the conflict in
Chechnya-including the hijacking of a Russian airliner in Saudi Arabia in
March 2001 and the hijacking of a commercial bus with 40 passengers in
July 2001. Perhaps the most dramatic attacks were four apartment bombings in
Moscow and other Russian cities during August and September 1999, which killed
nearly 300 civilians. Putin, then Russia's prime minister under the
ailing President Boris Yeltsin, blamed these bombings on Chechen
rebels and reinvaded the breakaway republic. At least 41 people, including
17 children, were also killed in May 2002 when terrorists bombed a military
parade in the southwestern town of Kaspiisk — an attack that the Russian
government also blamed on Chechen extremists. In October 2002, Chechen
terrorists seized some 700 hostages in a Moscow theater. Russian
special forces launched a commando raid, pumping an aerosol form of the
powerful narcotic Fentanyl into the theater to disable the
hostage-takers. The drug killed more than 110 hostages, as well as many of
Ex. 6. Questions for
1. Why do you think some groups of people
feel that they can only achieve their political objectives through violent
2. Do you think the use of violence is ever
justified in achieving a particular “political objective”? Why or why not?
3. How do you think acts of terrorism might
be prevented or discouraged by the publics or governments against whom they
Ex. 7. Read the text and put
questions to it:
News In Brief
BUSH DECLARES SEPTEMBER 11
Exactly one week before the
first anniversary of the September 11 attacks, President George W. Bush has
declared that dark day in US history "Patriot Day," in honour of those killed.
The more than 3,000 people who
died in the attacks in New York, Pennsylvania and outside Washington "will
forever hold a cherished place in our hearts and in the history of our
nation," Bush declared in a statement yesterday.
will not forget the events of that terrible morning, nor will we forget how
Americans responded in New York City, at the Pentagon and in the skies over
Pennsylvania -with heroism and selflessness, with compassion and courage and
with prayer and hope," he said.
"As we mark the first
anniversary of that tragic day, we remember their sacrifice and we commit
ourselves to honouring their memory by pursuing peace and justice in the world
and security at home." Bush called on US citizens to fly their flags at
half-staff every September 11 and to observe a moment of silence at 8:46 am
(12:46 GMT), the exact moment at which the first hijacked plane slammed into
the World Trade Centre. He also urged people to participate in commemorative
ceremonies, memorial services and candlelight vigils in remembrance of those
“Inspired by the heroic
sacrifices of our firefighters, rescue and law enforcement personnel, military
service members and other citizens, our nation found unity, focus and
strength” after the attacks, Bush declared. He added that “from the tragedy of
September 11 emerged a stronger nation, renewed by a spirit of national pride
and a true love of country.”
Ex. 8. Use the vocabulary in
describing the September 11 events in New-York and Washington.
outrageous and vicious act
barbarous terrorist act
most horrifying attacks ever
deadly series of blows
plane slammed into
planes blasted fiery, gaping
jet dove into the building
horrendous number of lives
unknown number of fatalities
city under siege
day of horror
Ex. 9. Give the definition of
the following words and memorize them:
1. catastrophe – a sudden great
Ex. 10. a) Why did Putin agree
with President Bush that terrorists are serious treat to world security and to
Russia? Do you share his point if view? Why?
b) Read the text
Presidents Putin and Bush,
Crawford, Texas, Nov. 2001. (AP Photo/Doug Mills)
How did Russia react to
President Vladimir Putin was the first world leader to call President Bush
with condolences after the attacks. Within two weeks, the United States and
Russia had reached an agreement to increase intelligence-sharing about
Afghanistan and al-Qaeda and, more significant, to allow U.S. troops to be
based in Uzbekistan and Tajikistan-countries in Russia's Central Asian
backyard. Putin has repeatedly stressed Russia's solidarity with the war
effort and even declined to object to the spring 2002 arrival of U.S. Green
Berets to help train Georgian troops hunting militants with suspected links to
al-Qaeda. In May 2002, NATO created a new NATO-Russia Council to include
Moscow from the outset in NATO deliberations on issues including
counterterrorism and nonproliferation. Taken together, experts say, these
developments amount to a notably supportive Russian response to 9/11.
Why is it important that
Russia has cooperated with the U.S. war effort? Broadly speaking, for two
reasons: military and political. Militarily, experts say, Russia's decision
not to protest the stationing of U.S. forces in Central Asia—such as sending
the U.S. Army's Tenth Mountain Division to Uzbekistan and special forces to
Tajikistan—helped provide a critical staging area for the war in Afghanistan.
Allowing U.S. troops to be based on the territory of the former Soviet Union
and along Russia's southern border was a major departure for Russian policy,
but Putin readily agreed—to the surprise of some Russia experts.
Politically, Russia's support
eased U.S. efforts to build international coalitions against terrorism. In
other recent American-led military campaigns—such as the 1999 war in
Kosovo—Russia's opposition made it more difficult to keep a coalition united
and to conduct the war. This time, Russian cooperation has made it much easier
to isolate al-Qaeda and the Taliban and to pressure other regimes that harbor
Ex. 11. Give it a name:
a sudden great disaster
a very bad accident, that causes great
damage or loss of life
a terrible event that causes great sadness
a state of fighting between nations or
groups with a nation using a military force
wickedness; morally wrong behaviour
punishment that is consider to be morally
right and fully deserved
deliberate punishment or injury inflicted
in return for what one has suffered
to do harm or injury
an action of feeling produced in answer to
Ex. 12. Can you guess the
meaning of these international words:
xenophobia, dogma, patriotism,
racism, fanaticism, stereotype, propaganda, fact, attack.
Ex. 13. Match the words:
Ex. 14 Use the vocabulary in
your own stories about the day of horror in Beslan:
detonate - to cause to explode
pandemic - a disease which is
blunders - stupid, unnecessary
martyrdom - sacrificial
death/suffering for one's beliefs, nation, etc.
on the run - trying to-escape
predicament - a
feeble - weak
Should we understand the two wars in
Chechnya as nationalist struggles, or as Islamist struggles?
Why isn’t the U.S. doing more to help
Russia against common enemies?
Ex. 15. Write down an essay on
Ex. 1. Read the text
Is there a definition of
Even though most people can
recognize terrorism when they see it, experts have had difficulty coming up
with an ironclad definition. The State Department defines terrorism as
"premeditated, politically motivated violence perpetrated against noncombatant
targets by subnational groups or clandestine agents, usually intended to
influence an audience." In another useful attempt to produce a definition,
Paul Pillar, a former deputy chief of the CIA's Counterterrorist Center,
argues that there are four key elements of terrorism: It is premeditated -
planned in advance, rather than an impulsive act of rage.
It is political - not
criminal, like the violence that groups such as the mafia use to get money,
but designed to change the existing political order. It is aimed at civilians
- not at military targets or combat-ready troops.
It is carried out by
subnational groups not by the army of a country.
Where does the word
"terrorism" come from?
It was coined during France's
Reign of Terror in 1 793-94. Originally, the leaders of this systematized
attempt to weed out "traitors" among the revolutionary ranks praised terror as
the best way to defend liberty, but as the French Revolution soured, the word
soon took on grim echoes of state violence and guillotines. Today, most
terrorists dislike the label, according to Bruce Hoffman of the RAND think
Is terrorism a new
No. The oldest terrorists were
holy warriors who killed civilians. For instance, in first-century Palestine,
Jewish Zealots would publicly slit the throats of Romans and their
collaborators; in seventh-century India, the Thuggee cult would ritually
strangle passersby as sacrifices to the Hindu deity Kali; and in the
eleventh-century Middle East, the Shiite sect known as the Assassins would eat
hashish before murdering civilian foes. Historians can trace recognizably
modern forms of terrorism back to such late-nineteenth-century organizations
as Narodnaya Volya ("People's Will"), an anti-tsarist group in Russia. One
particularly successful early case of terrorism was the 1914 assassination of
Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand by a Serb extremist, an event that helped
trigger World War I. Even more familiar forms of terrorism often custom-made
for TV cameras - first appeared on July 22, 1968, when the Popular Front for
the Liberation of Palestine undertook the first terrorist hijacking of a
Is terrorism aimed at an
Usually, yes. Terrorist acts
are often deliberately spectacular, designed to rattle and influence a wide
audience, beyond the victims of the violence itself. The point is to use the
psychological impact of violence or of the threat of violence to effect
political change. As the terrorism expert Brian Jenkins bluntly put it in
1974, "Terrorism is theatre."
Ex. 2. Answer the questions:
1. Is terrorism just brutal, unthinking
2. Does it take the form of bombing,
shooting, hijacking or assassinations?
3. Is it a deliberate use of violence
against civilians for political or religious ends?
4. Is there a definition of terrorism?
5. What is terrorism?
6. What are some key elements of terrorism?
7. Where does the term “terrorism” come
8. Is terrorism a new phenomenon?
9. Is it aimed at an audience? Why?
10. Do you think it is irrational to
recruit young people to commit suicide for a cause?
11. What role should people of good
will take in the current crisis?
Ex. 3. What word is odd out?
1) violence – brutality – justice – cruelty
2) victim – martyr – wickedness – sufferer –
3) terrible – outrageous – vicious –
terrific – audacious – essential
Ex. 4. Make up a dialog using
new vocabulary, analyzing last events in Russia
Ex. 5. Read and translate
using a dictionary if necessary
WHAT ARE THE CAUSES AND
ORIGINS OF TERRORISM?
On September 11, 2001, the
United States was attacked by terrorists connected with the radical Islamist
group, Al Qaeda. Four commercial airliners were hijacked, to be used as
missiles in the destruction of American monuments and American lives. Both
towers of the World Trade Center in New York were destroyed, and the Pentagon
in Washington, DC, was severely damaged. Almost three thousand lives were
lost, the greatest single-day loss of American lives on American soil since
the Civil War and the greatest, single-day loss to violence of American
civilian lives in history
Some refer to these horrible
events as a tragedy or a disaster But both these terms carry
connotations of unavoidable natural calamities such as hurricanes or
earthquakes: that is, these terms connote events with no human cause. When
disaster strikes, we can do naught but mourn. The events of September 11,
however, were the result of deliberate human action. The more appropriate
terms for speaking about these events are crime, mass murder or acts of war.
Thus, while we mourn the loss of lives on that day another response is also
justified: a desire for justice.
Comparisons are now made to
the Japanese sneak attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941. But really, the
September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks are incomparable. In 1941, the armed
forces of the Empire of Japan attacked the armed forces of the United States.
On September 11, however, the terrorists did not attack our armed forces, but
the American people as such. This is truly an unprecedented crime.
The Al Qaeda terror network is
at war with us. These terrorists, quite clearly, hate us and seek to do us
harm. Osama bin Laden has called it a holy duty binding on every Moslem to
kill every American within reach. In other words, he believes genocide is
justified. Such hate is difficult for Americans to fathom for we know
ourselves to be a peaceable people. What, then, is the cause of such hatred?
What are the grievances of the followers of Osama bin Laden which prompt them
to commit mass murder of American civilians? Are they such that they could
At a macro-historical level,
the terrorists of Al Qaeda see themselves as holy warriors in the long history
of conflict between Islam and the unbelievers - in particular, the unbelievers
of the West, or Christendom. While we are now taught that the medieval
Crusades were in their very nature a crime of intolerance (and it is surely
true that the Crusaders committed innumerable shameful atrocities), we would
do well also to recall that the Crusades were a belated act of strategic
defense. For Mohammed was an "armed prophet," as Machiavelli put it. In
the seventh and eighth centuries, Arab armies swept across the Christian lands
of North Africa, converting peoples at the point of the sword. Crossing over
into Europe at the Straits of Gibraltar, they conquered nearly the whole of
Spain, and their advance into Western Europe was stopped only at the Battle of
Tours (in central France) in 732. Spanish Christians fought for centuries to
reclaim their country and to defend against successive Muslim invasions,
succeeding finally only in the fifteenth century, after hundreds of years.
This Spanish victory, the final liberation of Christian Spain from what were,
in effect, Muslim imperialists or colonialists, is referred to by Osama bin
Laden in his videotaped response to the September 11 bombings as the "tragedy
Likewise in Eastern Europe,
after the fall of Constantinople to the Turks in 1453, the nations of
Christendom were threatened in the Balkans by successive Muslim invasions. In
1683, the Turks penetrated as far as the gates of Vienna, where they were
defeated by the heavy cavalry of the Polish king Jan Sobieski. Centuries of
war and popular uprisings in the Balkans eventually liberated Christian
peoples from the "Turkish yoke." By the end of the nineteenth century, the
Ottoman Empire was the "sick man of Europe," while Europe reached its
These are hardly "current
events," but it is necessary to revisit such history in order to understand
the background to the grievances which animate Al Qaeda. Their deepest
grievance is the worldly success of the West, or Christendom; and the relative
decline in the power and prestige, the splendor and dynamism of Islamic
civilization over the past four centuries.
Ex. 6. Put questions to the
Ex. 7. Translate from English
naught - nothing
fathom - to understand
atrocities - extremely evil
and cruel actions
Machiavelli - Italian
political theorist (1469-1527)
zenith - the highest point
stagnant - not moving or
glut - oversupply
complicit - involved as an
imputed - attributed to or
appreciably - noticeably
theocratic - a government rum
in the name of God
getting "out of hand" -
becoming out of control
recompense - repayment for
omnipotent - having unlimited
power, force or authority
prudence - wisdom and care
Read and translate the text
using a dictionary if necessary
CHILDREN AND TERRORISM
What Do We Tell Our Children?
Nobody has written the how-to
manual on this one yet. When our children woke up on Sept. 12, the
world felt less safe to them than it did at the same time yesterday. It
did for us, too, but if adults are finding the events in New York and
Washington incomprehensible, children may be profoundly frightened.
"Just as this is beyond belief
for adults, it suggests to children that the worst fantasies they can
possibly have are possible. The illusion that life is safe and predictable
has been challenged," child psychiatrist Stuart Goldman of Children's
Hospital and Harvard University said yesterday.
For children of every age, the
first thought often will be an egocentric one: "What about me? Am I safe? Are
my parents safe?" Answering that question is our first and most important
responsibility, said children's television personality Fred Rogers
in a telephone interview. He urged parents not to fall apart, "even
though that's what you feel like doing," and to tell children explicitly
that we and our government are doing all we can to keep them and our country
safe, even as we express our sorrow and grief.
For children under 7, worry
typically translates to clingy behavior. A 4-year-old may follow you
around the house, or insist you stay with her tonight until she falls asleep,
something she hasn't wanted for an age. With older children, the clinging has
an age-appropriate twist: "The most independent 16-year-old may suddenly be
checking in with you by phone just to say he's going to be five minutes late,"
Goldman said. Keeping the connection to children tightly under control,
literally being with them even if it's just to be in the same room or under
the same roof, is profoundly comforting and something parents should not
underestimate. It's what prompted child psychiatrist Gene V. Beresin of
Massachusetts General Hospital to cancel patients yesterday so he could be
home when his twin 14-year-olds arrived from school. It's also what's behind
Brookline psychologist Sharon Gordetsky's advice when she tells parents
to cancel any plans in the next few days and this weekend that would
take you away from your children.
Gordetsky said some children
will need more structure than usual in the days to come, perhaps wanting you
to walk them to school, or meet the bus. If a child of any age is more
fearful than usual, expecting him to tough it out - "You have your
own bedroom to sleep in, just like always", - runs the risk of inflaming
fears, not dispelling them. She said keeping to routines, having
family meals together, getting together with extended family, and lots of
extra cuddle time are strategies to mitigate against
Why do deaths in New York City
and Washington translate to childhood fears in Boston? For the same
reasons they do for adults: They stir up an intense sense of
vulnerability. In addition, though, young children lack the cognitive
ability to bring perspective to tragedy. If an airplane can fly
into a building in New York, why not into the Prudential or the Hancock in
Boston? If a plane can be hijacked and blow up, why not daddy's
plane when he goes on a business trip? If people can go to work and die in
Washington or New York, how safe is mom's office in Providence or Boston? For
middle- and high-school age children who are able to engage in abstract
thinking, the fears may project to the future, but also in a
self-centered way: Will our country ever be safe again? Will I ever feel safe
flying? Will we fly to Colorado at Christmas? Will our synagogue be
safe at Rosh Hashana?
Ex. 1. Answer the following
Why did the world feel less safe after
Why are the worst fantasies of profoundly
frightened children possible in our world?
What is our first and most important
What does children’s television
personality advise parents?
How are the parents advised to behave
Why does child psychiatrist prompt to
cancel our plans so we could be home with our children?
Do children need more structure than usual
in the days to come?
Why are lots of extra cuddle time said to
be strategies to mitigate against fearfulness?
Ex. 2. Find in the text the
English equivalents of the following:
Непонятный, оставлять, определенно, цепко,
рассеивать, близость, уязвимость, синагога, вечность.
Ex. 3. Can you guess the
meaning of these words:
Adult, child, psychiatrist,
children’s television personality, parents, psychologist, pediatrician.
Ex. 4. Study the following
words and use them in sentences of your own:
Manual on, incomprehensible,
predictable, responsibility, to urge, to fall apart, explicitly, to express
sorrow and grief, clingy behaviour, to comfort, fearful, to tough out,
inflaming fear, dispel, cuddle time, vulnerability.
Ex. 1. Read the text and
answer the following questions:
How can you prove that adults know how to
What are the best recommendations for
Are there any differences in behaviour for
children under 7 and the most independent 16-year-old ones?
Is it OK to share your feelings even with
preschoolers as long as you burden them or overdo it?
Ex. 2. Comment on this
“If we are to teach real peace
in this world, and if we are to carry on a real war against war, we shall have
to begin with the children.”
Ex. 3. Questions for
What are the types of initial reactions
children expressed during and after terrorist attacks?
How do the child psychiatrists advise
parents to deal with their children’s fears and questions? Do you think it is
a good advise? Does the child’s age matter?
Can you give advice how to deal with
Ex. 4. 1. Write down a report.
“Children and Terrorism” describing your feelings, emotions and opinion.
2. Write down essays on theme
“What role does Islamic fundamentalism play in terrorism?”
Put questions and analyze
WHAT IS OLD AND WHAT IS NEW IN
THE TERRORISM OF ISLAMIC FUNDAMENTALISM?
Mass murder inspired by
Islamic fundamentalism and fanaticism differs from the secular totalitarian
ideologies and regimes of Europe's twentieth century fascism and Nazism, on
the one hand, and Communism, especially in. the Stalin era, on the other. Like
the twentieth-century totalitarians, today's Islamic fundamentalist fanatics
are convinced that they possess absolute Truth which is immune to refutation
or criticism; they despise Western modernity yet borrow its technological
accomplishments in an effort to destroy it. They believe that force and terror
are necessary to establish a Utopia in place of the current decadent and
corrupt world; and they explain history on the basis of a conspiratorial
construct in which the United States, more than "international Jewry" or
global capitalism, plays the central role.
Unlike the followers of the
past century's secular religions, today's terrorists draw inspiration from an
apocalyptic vision rooted in religious radicalism. Osama bin Laden and al
Qaeda emerge in a global political culture in which elements of Leftist
anti-globalization discourse and reruns of fascist and Nazi visions of Jewish
conspiracies merge with religious passions. Because Al Qaeda knows how to
speak the language of leftist anti-imperialism of the past century, it
suggests a mood that overlaps with secular Third-World radicalism. Yet in
crucial matters, such as its view of death and suicide and its stance on
rationality, it appears closer to the fascist and Nazi philosophy than to the
Communist past. The stand-off with Soviet Communism could end with its
peaceful implosion; as was the case with fascism and Nazism, the only way the
threat of terrorism inspired by radical Islam can end is through its military
By terrorism, I mean the
intentional murder or attempted murder of any person, civilian or military,
man, woman, or child, old or young, who is not engaged in military combat.
Civilian deaths caused by stray bombs and missiles or preemptive killings of
those who are actively engaged in acts of terror, neither of which
intentionally target the innocent, are not acts of terrorism in this sense. In
the modern European context terrorism is rooted both in the Jacobin and
Communist traditions, on the one hand, and in the fascist and Nazi movements
and regimes, on the other. At all times and in all places in modern European
history, terrorism's many targets have always included a frontal attack on the
institutions and principles of liberal democracy - which rests on the
principle that all conflicts should be resolved by discussion, debate, and
compromise. Terrorists, however, believe they are in possession of absolute
Truths, and thus have the right and obligation to kill those who disagree and
who stand in their way. In every instance, terrorists are persons with an
ideological rationale that facilitates murdering the innocent with a clean
conscience fueled by self-righteous indignation. In many cases their tar-gets
have been political leaders who sought compromise or nonviolent solutions to
The emergence of terrorism
during the French Revolution represented a regression to the normal practice
of war during the wars of religion in the seventeenth century. During the
Thirty Years War, Europeans did not distinguish between combatants and
civilians but between believers and apostates, Protestants and Catholics. The
resulting devastation led to efforts to codify rules of war that would
establish such distinctions, put limits on war and political violence, and
establish in the Treaty of Westphalia of 1648 the principle that peace
required toleration of differing religious beliefs. The American Constitution
rests in part on the bitter European recognition that civil peace required the
separation of religion from the state. By inventing the new category of "enemy
of the people" during the French revolution, the Jacobins again blurred the
distinction of combatant and noncombatant and gave renewed justification to
murder as a political weapon. Since the Jacobins, terror remained an important
component of European history when Left/Right and nationalist tensions reached
a boiling point.
Terrorism in modern Europe has
been the practice of those who believe that reform and diplomacy are
undesirable. Apologists for terrorism suggest that it is the result of
conditions of social injustice. Violence in the Sorelian tradition is a
response to the growing success of working-class integration in Europe and the
popularity of peaceful reformism as opposed to revolutionary sentiment within
the working classes. Terrorists have repeatedly attacked those who seek to
find negotiated and non-catastrophic solutions to difficult problems. The
assassination of the Austrian Archduke Ferdinand in June 1914, which was the
immediate but not deeper cause of World War I, illustrates this enduring
feature of terrorism. Ferdinand was among those in the Hapsburg Empire who
sought a negotiated solution to the dilemma of nationalism within a
multinational empire. Hence, it was key to murder him to rule out all but the
most radical possibilities.