Politology (Unit 2)

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Politology (Unit 1)
Politology (Unit 2)
Politology (Unit 3)
Politology (Unit 4)
Politology (Unit 4a)
Politology (Unit 5)
Politology (Unit 6)

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Unit 2



Globalization: Uniting People or Destroying the Planet?


Text 1

It Brings Harm and Chaos

It's not at all easy to write about something you've never actually seen or even imagined. But still, my ideas of globalization are as follows: it's bad culturally, economically and ecologically.

The economical issue is not my favorite subject, but I've heard many times, that globalization is only good for the so-called developed countries and is likely to harm the interests of the countries like Russia, which won't be able to survive in the situation of worldwide competition. The ecological issue is clear here: the territories that are not to be touched now, because their inhabitants belong to some small rare ethnic groups, will become part of international property and therefore probably destroyed. The cultural issue is of the biggest interest to me and to the rest of the world. Even omitting the fact that the previously mentioned small ethnic groups will most likely die out, we cannot overlook the general resistance of the world to being united and unified.

The perfect example here is that of the English language. The wider it is spread on the Earth's surface, the more variants it is modified into. So, my idea is this: if we cannot keep nations that speak one and the same language from altering that language to the point where there can easily arise a misunderstanding between an American and a British speaker, how can there be any hope that a Brazilian and a Dutchman will ever become people of one nation? My final conclusion is that globalization is impossible so far. With all the harm and chaos it will bring into the economical, ecological and cultural spheres of human lives, and with all the resentment it arouses in people, it will take centuries to unite the world.


Vocabulary Practice


Ex. 1 Read and translate the text using a dictionary if necessary.


Ex. 2 Find in the text the English equivalents of the following:

причинять вред, глобализация, редкие этнические группы, собственность, опускать, вымирать, сопротивление, унифицировать, изменяться, понимание, хаос, сфера, чувство негодования.


Ex. 3 Supply the missing words choosing in the text above:

1.      Globalization is likely ___________ the interests of the countries like Russia.

2.      Inhabitants belong to some ___________ will become part of international __________ and probably destroyed.

3.      It brings harm and ___________.

4.      There can easily arise ___________.

5.      And with all the _____________ it arouses in people, it will take centuries to unite the world.


Comprehension Exercises


Ex. 1 Read the text and answer the following questions:

1.      What are the ideas of the author of this article of globalization?

2.      What has she heard about globalization for Russia?

3.      What does she think about the future of small ethnic groups?

4.      Can people overlook the general resistance of the world to being united and unified?

5.      Does she believe that people from different countries will become one nation?

6.      Does it bring harm and chaos? Why?


Ex. 2 Define the following terms and memorize their definitions:

issue, rare, property, resistance, chaos, resentment


Ex. 3 Give your own understanding of the term “globalization”. Are you for or against it?


Ex. 4 Comment the statement that globalization will bring harm and chaos.


Text 2

It Has Disadvantages, But Is a Positive Phenomenon

The term 'globalization', like all newly brought to light things, is very popular nowadays. But what is it? What is the essence and the constituent parts of this phenomenon? Is globalization good or bad? I'll try to answer these questions in my essay. The term 'globalization' comes from the word 'global' which means 'considering all parts of a problem or a situation together; affecting or including the whole world' (Longman Dictionary). The term 'globalization' was first coined in the 1980s. Some people think it is a good thing. Globalization involves rising living standards, as there are plenty of opportunities to earn money: people can work abroad, get acquainted with overseas market; there is a growth in international travel; the rise of the Internet and recent advances in telecommunications, mutual assistance of the countries and etc. However, there is another opinion. They say that globalization doesn't concern all countries, but only powerful ones that have gained their power at the expense of developing countries. But even in the developed world not everyone has been a winner. The freedoms granted by globalization are leading to increased insecurity in the workplace. The coalition of environmentalists is also against globalization, as they think that corporations ignore the environment in the stampede for mega-profits and marketplace supremacy. However, it is impossible to answer the question: "Is globalization a positive or a negative phenomenon?" without analyzing what spheres of human activity globalization influences. In economics globalization shows itself in the growth of international trade, business, international co-operation. But again there are some countries that are dominant players. Such countries as the United States, Japan, Germany enjoy a strong competitive advantage in the sphere of economics putting others aside. The appearance of the common currency (Euro) also promotes the world's globalization as well as reduces the inconveniences connected with the exchange of money while a man travels from one country to another. Different political organizations, members of which are representatives from different countries, are of great use too. They solve various global problems (for example, disarmament, AIDS, capital punishment, etc). The global 'monoculture' has a single language, it is English. English is the language of the lion's share of the world books, newspapers and magazines, and it is promoted through radio, television, and films, almost 80% of the content posed on the Internet is in English. Of course, it is good that people from different countries can understand each other and communicate using English; but still there is a disadvantage: other languages are in the background. Speaking about culture, I'd like to say that it is a well-known fact that the culture of every country is vulnerable to the 'monoculture' spread through the US films, publications and broadcasts. Many nations with strong cultural traditions (e.g. France, Greece) have to promote and preserve their own cultural heritage through governmental ministerial positions.

Summing everything up, I'd like to point out that globalization is, without doubt, a positive phenomenon of modern life. It stimulates the development of international trade, business, travel, co-operation, communication and collaboration between nations. Even so globalization as all things has its disadvantages. They are: insecurity in the workplace, total disregard for environment; neglect of developing countries. So if people pay attention to these problems and solve them, globalization will be a completely positive phenomenon.


Vocabulary Practice


Ex. 1 Read and translate the text using a dictionary if necessary.


Ex. 2 Put 10 questions to the text.


Ex. 3 Find out and read all the advantages of globalization.


Ex. 4 Comment on the statement “English is a single language for the global ‘monoculture’.


Ex. 5 Write down an essay “What does globalization means for Russia”.


Ex. 6 Give the definition of the following words:

opportunity, assistance, coalition, supremacy, heritage.


Ex. 7 Give it a name:

-        To support smth., or to help something to develop.

-        Situation in which a group of people or animals all start to run in a very fast uncontrolled way because they are frightened or exited.

-        A situation in which one person, group, or things has more power or influence then any other.

-        To do something unpleasant to someone because they have done something bad or illegal.

-        The art, buildings, traditions, and benefits that a society considers to be important parts of its history and culture.


Ex. 8 Find and odd word out:

to worry – to concern – to involve – to affect – to try;

coalition – unit – organization – treaty – globalization – corporation


Ex. 9 Give English equivalents to Russian words:

недостаток, уровень жизни, возможность, ознакомиться, рынок, зарабатывать деньги, за счет, вести, в погоне за сверхприбылью, подводя итог, решать глобальные проблемы, разоружение, уменьшать, валюта, наследие, стимулировать, нация, развитие международной торговли, обращать внимание на, положительное явление.


Comprehension Exercises


Ex. 1 Answer the following questions:

1.      What does the term “globalization” come from?

2.      What does it mean?

3.      When was this term first coined?

4.      What does Globalization involve?

5.      At the expense of what can powerful countries gain their power?

6.      Where and what can freedoms granted by globalization lead to?

7.      What group of people is against globalization and why?

8.      How is the globalization expressed in economics?

9.      What global problems can be easily solved by globalization?


Ex. 2 Read the text again and find out the advantages and disadvantages of globalization.


Ex. 3 Express your own opinion whether globalization is a positive phenomenon.


Ex. 4 Make up a dialogue with your deskmate. Give your pros and cons on the topic “Globalization”.


Text 4

It Ruins Our Planet

Our Earth is four thousands six hundred million years old. It has been flourishing for many centuries. Modern man ruins this world step by step. He has caused the distinction of five hundred species of animals. With the help of modern technology man is effectively destroying this oasis of life in the solar system. And one of the means in this procedure is globalization of economics and finance, which are too closely connected. It is difficult to survive in the world of industry and finance for a small company. Banks have to unite, turning into international financial giants concentrating great amounts of money. Such great sums give a chance to finance international financial corporations. This corporate finance forms into a global net, which has the power to rule not a single country but the world itself. The aim of each industry isn't only to produce something, but to earn money. To reach the aim the corporations don't pay attention to the environmental problems, which inevitably come as the result of industrialization. Day after day new signs of globalization appear in our world: the global computer net, the global monitory system (e.g., the usage of Euro). That's why we witness the appearance of new organizations - anti-global ones. People in these organizations fight hazardous influences of globalization. Together with other groups of organizations they fight against moving radioactive wastes from one country to another. Their aim is to fight all the horrifying consequences of the world's technological advances. We may conclude that global education and culture can do good to mankind, widening its knowledge while globalization of economics can only ruin our planet. In my sincere belief people will be able to cope with all the problems. It isn't accidental that we are called Homo sapiens as people are getting more and more concerned about the negative results of globalization.


Comprehension Exercises


Ex. 1 Read the text and translate it with a dictionary if necessary.


Ex. 2 Answer the following questions:

1.      How old is our planet?

2.      Who ruins the world step-by-step?

3.      With the help of what is man effectively destroying this oasis of life?

4.      Who has the power to rule not a single country, but the world itself?

5.      What are the new signs of globalization?

6.      What are the aims of anti-global organizations?

7.      Will people be able to cope with all the problems?


Ex. 3 Make up a dialogue on topic: “How to survive in the world of industry?”


Ex. 4 Give your point of view on question: “People are getting more and more concerned about the negative results of globalization.”


Ex. 5 Write down an essay: “Has Our Planet Future?”


Vocabulary Practice


Ex. 1 Translate the following words into English:

шаг за шагом, с помощью, оазис жизни, глобализация экономики и финансов, выжить, достичь цели, неизбежно, индустриализация, бороться против, радиоактивные отходы, человечество, ужасные последствия.


Ex. 2 Supply the missing words choosing in the text above.

a)      It has been flourishing __________.

b)      With the help of modern technology man ____________.

c)      It is difficult to survive ______________.

d)      Such great sums give a chance ____________.

e)      The aim of each industry isn’t only _____________.

f)        That’s why we witness ____________.


Ex. 3 Give the definition of the following words:

oasis, procedure, to survive, monitory system.


Ex. 4 Give it a name:

-        to grow well and healthy or to be very successful

-        a way of doing something, especially the correct or usual way

-        a very large successful company

-        to see smth. happen

-        dangerous to people’s health or safety


Ex. 5 Give Russian equivalents to the following English words:

to ruin, step-by-step, species of animals, effectively, oasis of life, the Solar system, to be closely connected, banks, great amount of money, to give a chance, financial corporation, a global net, to rule, to produce, to earn money, to reach the aim, to pay attention to, environmental problems, inevitably, day after day, new signs of, the global monitory system, the usage of Euro, to witness, radioactive waste, horrifying consequences, technological advances, mankind, to be able to cope with, negative results.


Ex. 6 Work out a project on topic “What is globalization?”

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