United Nations is an organization of sovereign nations representing almost all
of humanity. It has as its central goal the maintenance of international peace
and security. Additionally, its purposes call for the development of friendly
relations among nations based on equal rights and self-determination of
peoples and, through international co-operation, the solution of problems of
an economic, social, cultural and humanitarian nature.
United Nations is the meeting-place where representatives of all member states
— great and small, rich and poor, with varying political views and social
systems — have a voice and an equal vote in shaping a common course of action.
United Nations has played, and continues to play, an active role in reducing
tension in the world, preventing conflicts and putting an end to fighting
already under way.
six main organs of the United Nations — the General Assembly, the Security
Council, the Economic and Social Council, the Trusteeship Council, the
Secretariat and the International Court of Justice. The Court has its seat at
the Hague, Netherlands. All other organs are based at the United Nations
Headquarters in New York.
of the General Assembly talk to each other in many languages, but officially
there are only six — Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish.
Secretariat services the other organs of the United Nations and administers
the programmes and policies laid down by them. Over 20,000 men and women are
employed by the United Nations with about one-third of them at the
Head-quarters and the other two-thirds stationer; around the globe. Staff
members are recruited primarily from member states and are drawn from more
than 140 nations. As international civil servants, each takes an oath not to
seek or receive instructions from any government or outside authority.
for the United Nations, mostly ''behind the scenes" at the Headquarters, are
linguists, economists, editors, social scientists, legal experts, librarians,
journalists, statisticians, broadcasters, personnel officers, administrators
and experts in all the varied fields of activity covered by the United
Nations. They prepare the reports and studies requested by various bodies of
the United Nations; they issue press releases and produce publications,
broadcasts and films giving information about the United Nations; and they
perform the administrative duties needed to implement resolutions adopted by
the various organs. In addition, there are stenographers, clerks, engineers
and technicians, tour guides and also a body of security officers in
blue-grey uniforms who are responsible for the security of the United Nations
Headquarters. At the head of the Secretariat is the Secretary-General.
Headquarters of the United Nations are based in New York. The United Nations
Organization Secretariat occupies the higher building. The General Assembly is
held in the lower building.
Ex. 1 Read and translate the
text using a dictionary if necessary.
Ex. 2 Find in the text the
English equivalents of the following:
Представлять, нация, человечество, поддержка,
международное сотрудничество, решать проблемы, решение, штаб-квартира,
генеральная ассамблея, официально, политика, издавать, служащие, размещаться,
Ex. 3 Supply the missing words
according to the text above:
the United Nations is … representing
almost all of the humanity.
There are six main organs of the United
Nations - …
Officially there are only six languages …
As international civil servants, each
takes an oath …
At the head of the Secretariat …
Ex. 4 Match the following
words to their meanings:
freedom or protection from danger
a group of people elected to do smth.
fully independent and with complete
the human race
Ex. 1 Read the text and answer
What is the United Nations?
What are its purposes?
Do all the representatives have an equal
vote and a voice in shaping a common course of action?
How does the UN reduce tension in the
What organs does the UN conclude?
What languages are used in the UN?
How many people are employed by the UN?
What oath do the international civil
Who is at the head of the Secretariat?
Where are the main Headquarters of the UN
Ex. 2 Speak on stuff members
working for the United Nations, if you can illustrate your report with
Ex. 3 Express your opinion:
of the perspective on future
how can you prove that the UN has become
the most influential organization in the world
Answer the following questions.
How important do you think it is that we
try to make the United Nations a success? Very important? Fairly important?
Not very important?
In general do you think the United Nations
is doing a good job in trying to solve global problems?
Read the text and put questions to it
importance of international organizations for the development of modern
society is hard to overestimate. It can be traced in many spheres of our life:
politics, business, science, arts, sport, environment protection, social
welfare, human rights, etc. The Russian Federation is a member of a number of
international associations. Russian officials attend various meetings on the
international level. Delegations headed by President Putin are participants of
summits covered regularly by the media.
United Nations (UN) is one of the most influential organizations. It was
established in 1945 with the intention to preserve the wartime alliance of the
USA, USSR, and Britain. A lot of countries joined the UN for international
peace, security and cooperation. The headquarters of the UN are in New York
City, the Secretary General of the UN is Kofi Annan. The UN General Assembly
has one member from each member state who meet annually for a session.
Decisions on many important issues are taken by voting. The UN Security
Council is the most powerful body of the UN, because it can undertake
investigations into international disputes. Member states contribute
financially to the funds of the UN. These funds respectively finance the
programs of assistance carried out by the UN intergovernmental agencies, for
example the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF).
world has goals for children.
late 18th century, German philosopher Immanuel Kant proposed a federation or
"league" of the world's nations. Kant believed that such a federation would
allow countries to unite and punish any nation that committed an act of
aggression. This type of union by nations to protect each other against an
aggressor is sometimes referred to as collective security. Kant also
felt that the federation would protect the rights of small nations that
often become pawns in power struggles between larger countries.
United Nations is the result of a long history of efforts to promote
international cooperation. It was founded after World War II ended
in 1945. Its mission is to maintain world peace, develop good relations
between countries, promote cooperation in solving the world's problems, and
encourage respect for human rights. The UN is an alliance of
countries that agree to cooperate with one another. It brings together
countries that are rich and poor, large and small, and have different social
and political systems. Member nations pledge to settle their disputes
peacefully, to refrain from using force or the threat of force against other
countries, and to refuse help to any that opposes UN actions. As of 1997, the
UN had 185 members, including nearly every country in the world. There are six
main organs of the United Nations - the General Assembly, the Security
Council, the Economic and Social Council, the Trusteeship Council, the
Secretariat and the International Court of Justice.
Specialized agencies of the United Nations are UNESCO (United Nations
Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) and UNICEF (the United
Nations Children Fund).
objective of UNESCO is to contribute to peace and security in the world
by promoting collaboration among nations through education, science,
culture and communication in order to further universal respect for justice,
for the rule of law and for the human rights and fundamental freedoms, which
are affirmed for the peoples of the world, without distinction of race,
sex, language or religion, by the Charter of the United Nations.
UNICEF has five priorities, all of which focus on saving children's
lives and improving their chances of becoming productive citizens.
UNICEF priorities underpin the Millennium Development Goals and are central to
the programme of action adopted by the nations of the world at the UN
Special Session on Children 2002. UNICEF's first priority is early childhood
care, the second is immunization, the third priority is education for all
children, with a special emphasis on girls, the fourth is preventing
the spread of HIV/AIDS among young people and the final priority is the
protection children from exploitation, abuse and violence.
to opinion polls, falling of the birth rates, threaten of the rapid growth of
HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted infections, rising rates of substance abuse,
the informal privatization of education and health services are main causes of
the young people's desire to leave our country in case of opportunity
to receive higher education or job abroad.
without saying that children have always been the most unprotected part of our
society and they need special rights and defense. The future of our
planet depends on the future of children and the main task of our society is
to make all possible to decrease rates of children mortality and
criminality, to provide equal possibilities for all children in spheres of
education and health care.
Ex. 1 Read and translate the
text using a dictionary.
Ex. 2 Find in the text the
words that correspond in meaning to the following:
an act of aggression, collective security, to promote international
cooperation, human rights, an alliance, to contribute, collaboration, without
distinction, priorities, a chance, to adopt by the nations, special emphasis
on girls, exploitation, abuse, violence, opportunity, defense, to decrease
rates, criminality, health care.
Ex. 3 Match the two parts:
1. The United Nations is the result of
a long history of efforts
2. The UN is
3. The main objective of UNESCO is
adopted by the nations
4. Today UNISEF has five
5. The Programme of action
6. People’s desire to leave our
country in case
children morality and criminality
7. They need special rights
to contribute to peace and security
8. To decrease rates of
to promote international cooperation
Ex. 4 Which is the odd word
to ask, to beg, to implore, to require, to
to vote for, to support, to back, to
approve, to favour, to put forward, to sign
Ex. 5 Translate the following
words or word combinations and use them in sentences of your own:
верить, союз, защищать, усилие, был организован,
развивать хорошие отношения, разные социальные и политические системы,
отказываться, Генеральная Ассамблея, справедливость, забота о детстве, главные
причины, желание молодежи, главная задача общества, в сфере образования и
Ex. 1 Reread the text and
answer the following questions:
Who proposed a federation or “league” of
the world’s nations?
How did I. Kant understand the main aim of
the nation’s union?
When was the United Nations founded?
What countries does it bring together?
What are six main organs of the UN?
What specialized agencies of the UN do you
What five priorities does the UN have?
Who needs special rights and defense in
our society? Why?
Ex. 2 Describe specialized
agencies of the United Nations, their distinctive features, ideas from the
Ex. 3 Comment on the following
topics thinking like sociologists:
Human rights protecting. What should
modern society do to protect children from exploitation, abuse and violence
Equal possibilities for all children in
spheres of education and health care. Are you for or against it?
People set up different organizations for various
purposes. What do you know about these organizations? Are you a member of any
organization? Which organization would you join? Why?
you join PLAN'S 'world family', you
become a member of a worldwide
community in the fullest sense. There are over 830,000 PLAN International
sponsors around the world.
they are making a real difference to the lives of children in poor
communities. PLAN is currently helping more than 8 million people in over 30
countries to improve their own lives.
HELPING HAND CAN TURN DESPAIR TO HOPE
hard for us, living in a prosperous country, to imagine what it is like to
grow up in Africa, Latin America or large parts of Asia.
developing countries millions of children die from malnutrition and disease
before they even reach adulthood.
of those who survive, life is extremely hard.
in the most basic kind of hut. Their water for drinking, washing and cooking
comes from the local river or stream. They have to work from dawn till dusk,
almost from the time they can walk. And for most of the year they go hungry.
An average family income is £8 to £10 a month.
still, they lack the opportunity to improve their lives, because there is no
education or training in practical skills.
what we at PLAN International UK are working to change - and we need your help
we are working in over 30 countries to help children in poor communities raise
themselves out of poverty. We know we can change the world if we are prepared
to do it one child at a time.
can you do to help?
are asking you to join our worldwide family and to hold out a helping hand to
a child who urgently needs it.
do this now, by agreeing to sponsor a child.
no more than £12 a month - 40p a day. To most people in this country, that's
an affordable amount. But to a child and family in a poor village, it can be a
dream come true.
sponsorship can give them some of the things that we take for granted in this
country, such as an opportunity to go to school. It can give their families
the chance to learn basic skills and health care. And it can start their
communities on the long and gradual process of raising their living standards.
you are sponsoring one particular youngster, you'll have the joy of seeing the
difference your help makes. You'll see your sponsored child growing up -
learning, developing and gaining in strength and confidence over the years -
through letters, photographs and regular progress reports.
LIKE THESE NEED YOUR FRIENDSHIP TODAY!
Make up a dialogue after reading this text. Develop the idea supporting the
family and raising the living standards of the community as a whole.
International is a worldwide charity that has been working with children and
their families in poor communities for the past 58 years.
Africa, Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean we are giving poor people the
chance to improve their own lives through small-scale development projects.
helping to build schools, dig wells, provide medicines and -most important of
all - teach the skills which the people need.
just one example: in the Embu area of Kenya we are helping to equip and run a
mobile clinic to improve child care; providing textbooks for the local school,
helping to build tanks to conserve rainwater; and training local people in
agricultural and income generating skills.
we have over 6,000 locally recruited Field Staff working with families in poor
that we cannot really help the world's poor by giving them handouts, or
imposing preconceived Western 'solutions' on them. Our approach is to help
people solve their problems in their own way.
birth: Wukiharjo, Indonesia
lives with his parents in a house made of bamboo with a mud floor. The house
has no water supply or lavatory: the family, along with the rest of the
community, use the nearby river.
entire family possessions are 3 old wardrobes, 2 tables, 6 chairs, a divan
bed, a radio and a bicycle.
Suhartono's father is a peasant farmer. The family's total income is only
£8.26 a month.
birth: Dankolo, Senegal, W. Africa
village where Diabe lives, like thousands in the Third World, lacks even the
most basic health care. Neither Diabe nor her brother and two sisters can read
family live in a mud compound which they share with relatives. It consists of
20 huts, along with a cookhouse, granary and animal shed.
Cisses have to rely entirely on their own resources. The soil is poor and, if
the rains fail, the crops fail too.
birth: Kathmandu, Nepal
father is a labourer. His mother works at home. The family do not own any land
and the family's total monthly income is about £13.
in a house made of mud and stone, roofed with thatch and straw.
woodfire on the floor is all they have for cooking. The house has no water
supply or sanitation.
birth: El Divisadero, Guatemala
lives with her family in a one room house made from clay bricks. It has a dirt
floor, a single window, and a lavatory in the corner.
only source of water is a public well some distance from the house. Santos'
father is a farmer who earns barely enough for their most basic needs.
Ex. 6. Express your opinion:
Can life be organized without poverty?
Do humans tend to accept a positive
attitude to Plan International UK
Would you join “A World Family”? Why?
Read the interview and write down an assay
about the aims of this organization and the ways they are achieved. Your pros
Michael Aspel answers your questions about PLAN INTERNATIONAL UK
Can my help really make a difference?
Yes, as a sponsor myself I can assure you of that. The proof is in all the
schools and clinics, the new supplies of fresh water, and the wells and
bridges that PLAN has helped to provide. And the many income-generating
projects they've helped families to start.
can I be sure my money will be well spent?
PLAN takes pride in the fact that on average throughout the world,
approximately 80p of every £1 contributed goes straight towards development
work, with the absolute minimum being spent on administration. Your help will
go to the village or area where your child lives - and every year you will
receive a report from our local Field Officer to tell you what it has helped
will my Sponsored Child be chosen?
When you apply to be a sponsor, you can choose whether you would like to
sponsor a girl or a boy, and decide which area of the world you prefer. Your
child will live in a village or community where PLAN International is already
working and will be chosen by the family to represent them.
often will I hear from my child?
It depends. Some children love writing and send several letters a year, many
with drawings of their homes and surroundings. Others are less communicative,
and some (especially the younger children) may not be able to write. But
PLAN'S Field worker will make sure you receive news of your child at least
twice a year.
long should I continue to be a sponsor?
Children are normally sponsored until they reach the age of 18, or until they
or their family no longer need our help. But becoming a sponsor does not
commit you to any fixed period. You can withdraw at any time if your
The Different International
Ex. 1 Read the text, translate
it using a dictionary.
the sphere of finance, Russia cooperates with the International Bank for
Reconstruction and Development, known as the World Bank, and the
International Monetary Fund. Russia also cooperates with the United
Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO),
especially in the programs of the World Heritage Fund which protect
world heritage sites. This fund finances projects that help to restore and
preserve man-made and natural sites in Russia.
of humanitarian organisations always help those in need. The representatives
of Medicines Sans Frontier and the Red Cross can be found in
Russia, as well as in any part of the world.
assist people suffering from the horrors of war, floods, earthquakes,
epidemics, and accidents.
acronym, WWF and the black and white logo of a giant panda are
well-known in our country. WWF stands for the World Wide Fund for Nature that
was established in 1961 to raise funds for conservation of particular species,
e.g. the tiger and the giant panda.
Green Party which aims to "preserve the planet and its people" is very
numerous and has a number of seats in the parliaments of many countries,
including the European Parliament in Strasbourg. The British Green Party is
known as the Ecology Party.
Greenpeace is an
international pressure group founded in 1971, with the policy of non-violent
direct actions backed by scientific research. Sometimes these actions are
risk-taking: during a protest against French atmospheric nuclear testing in
the South Pacific in 1985, the ship of Greenpeace was sunk by French
intelligence agents (агентами
Russian Greenpeace is affiliated with
Greenpeace groups in other countries.
Ex. 1 Answer the questions:
Does Russia cooperate with the IMF?
What do you know about this organization?
Does UNESCO play any role in our life?
What are the purposes of this
When was Greenpeace founded?
What is its policy nowadays?
What do you know about Russian Greenpeace?
Ex. 2 Read and translate the
The International Criminal Police
Organization helps the police of 14G nations to cooperate in catching
criminals who cross borders to escape capture.
It aims at promoting world trade and
supporting countries that are having financial problems. It was established in
It was founded in 1946. It promotes
cooperation among its 158 members in education, science and culture. The USA,
contributor of 25% of its budget, withdrew in 1984 on the grounds of its
repoliticization and mismanagement. Britain followed in 1985.
It was established in 1945 as a successor
to the League of Nations and has played an important role in many areas, such
as refugee aid and resettlement, development assistance, disaster relief, and
cultural cooperation. Members contribute financially according to the
resources, an apportionment being made by the General Assembly, with the
addition of voluntary contributions from some governments to the funds of the
UN. These finance the programme of assistance carried out by the UN
intergovernmental agencies, the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), the
UN refugee organizations, and the United Nations Special Fund for Developing
Countries. There are six official working languages: English, French, Russian,
Spanish, Chinese, and Arabic.
It was established in 1949 in Strasbourg.
Its aims are to secure "a greater measure of unity between the European
countries". The widest association of European states, it has a Committee of
foreign ministers, a Parliamentary Assembly (with members from national
parliaments), and a European Commission investigating violations of human
It is a new action programme to provide
full equality for women. It aims at promoting full participation by women and
re-evaluating their contribution to working life and society at large. It is
known as "Europe — a trump card for women".
It was established in 1948 in Geneva. It
is based on a multilateral treaty which lays down a common code of conduct in
international trade, providing a forum for discussion of trade problems, with
the object of reducing trade barriers.
(Hutchinson Gallup. Info 92.)
Ex. 3 Here is the list of some
UN specialized agencies. Try to guess what they mean:
IAEA, IMF, IFAD, UNICEF, UNDRC,
Ex. 4 Answer the questions:
Trade relations with the EC are prominent
for the Russian Federation, aren’t they?
Does our country export grain or not?
What products does Russia import?
Is Russia’s export of national resources
Ex. 4 Read the text, retell it
and put some questions to the text.
an organisation that plays an important part in the lives of all Europeans.
It's the European Community (EC) or European Union (EU). The EC
is a political and economical alliance. The aims of the EC include expansion
of trade, free movement of capital and labour within the Community. It
establishes a closer union among European nations, that's why the relations of
Russia with the EC are so important.
relations with the EC are prominent for the Russian Federation. Our country
exports grain and imports meat. Russia's export of natural resources to
different EC countries is increasing rapidly. It is regularly reported that
more and more joint ventures (JVs) are being launched in Russia. President
Vladimir Putin said he anticipated more joint projects in Europe similar to
the Blue Stream pipeline project with Turkey. This 3 billion dollar venture
was implemented by gas giant Gazprom and Italian energy company Eni. They are
expected to deliver natural gas from Russia to Turkey via the Black Sea.
to develop economically, Russia has to join the World Trade Organisation
and other political and trade alliances. This is the only way to abolish
restrictive practices administered to our country and ensure low tariffs,
loans, and export of our products.
Ex. 5 Answer the questions:
What does the word WHO mean?
When did this organization begin its
Is Russia a member of the World Health
Is the aim of this organization to
cooperate for improved health conditions?
The major function of the WHO is to
establish measures for the control of epidemic diseases, isn’t it?
What other medical organizations are there
in the world?
Is the Red Cross and the Red Crescent a
Ex. 7 Read and translate
information about the Red Cross and discuss the pupils’ press releases about
the Red Crescent. (See Additional Material)