Politology (Unit 4a)

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Additional material to Unit 4 (The World Community)

and Pupils’ Press Releases

 

People set up different organizations for various purposes. What do you know about these organizations? Are you a member of any organization? Which organization would you join? Why?

The 20th century is characterized by/the creation of international organizations: only a small number of the international organizations now in existence were formed before 1850, and about 90% were organized in the period 1900-1956. In the 1980s there were more than 2500 international organizations, of which about 750 were formed after World War II. This number included more than 130 intergovernmental agencies, of which the most notable were the United Nations and its affiliates.

The name United Nations was devised by United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt and was first used in the "Declaration by United Nations" of 1 January 1942, when representatives of 26 nations pledged their governments to continue fighting together against Germany, Japan and Italy. The Charter of the United Nations was signed by 51 states on 26 June 1945. This day is now celebrated each year throughout the world as United Nations Day. Russia is a member of the United Nations.

A specialized agency of the United Nations is UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization). It was founded in 1946. It promotes international collaboration in education, science and culture. Education is UNESCO's main activity. The organization attempts to assist and support national efforts of member states in eliminating illiteracy, training teachers, developing educational institutions and extending free education. UNESCO also works to study, develop and promote cultural heritage and protect historic monuments and the natural environment. UNESCO assists and supports the efforts of member states through conferences, seminars and publications, through the promotion of research and exchange of information and knowledge.

Now I'd like to tell you about the World Health Organization (WHO). It began its activities in 1948. It is a specialized agency designed to further international cooperation for improved health conditions. The major function of the WHO is to establish measures for the control of epidemic diseases. This consists of mass campaigns promoted by WHO against communicable diseases. The major function of WHO is nursing concerned with maternal and child health. It also assists educational programmes for nurses and assistants. WHO is coordinating an international effort against Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) as well as the current threat of SARS.

Another medical organization is the Red Cross and Red Crescent. The Red Cross is an humanitarian agency with national affiliates in almost every country in the world. The Red Cross movement began in 1863. Its peacetime activities include first aid, accident prevention, water safety, training of nurses' aids and mothers' assistants and maintenance of maternal and child welfare centres, clinics, blood banks and numerous other services. The Red Cross is the name used in Christian countries; the Red Crescent is the name used in Muslim countries.

Greenpeace is an international nongovernmental organization dedicated to preserving endangered species of animals, preventing environmental abuses and taking care of wildlife. Greenpeace was founded in 1971 in Vancouver, Canada. It brought together people concerned with terrible abuses to the environment. The organization has a small staff and relies largely on voluntary staffing and funding. Greenpeace also campaigns:

-  for stricter control over chemical waste disposal on land;

-  to stop all nuclear weapons tests;

-  to close down nuclear power stations and nuclear reprocessing plants;

-  to stop acid rain and protect the atmosphere;

-  to reduce the trade in endangered species products;

-  to declare Antarctica a World Park - free of military and industrial exploitation, and so forth.

Today it is a global organization with national offices in 27 countries, one of them is in Russia (since 1992).

There are also youth organizations, because the main aim of society is to prepare young people for responsible roles in the adult world and to provide constructive outlets for energies of young people. Some organizations such as Boy Scouts, Girl Scouts or Guides, and Young Men's Christian Association and Young Women's Christian Associations, have spread all over the world. The Boy Scout movement was founded in Great Britain in 1908. In 1910 the Girl Scout movement was also founded in that country. There are about 1.300.000 boys and girls in them. The movement of the Boy Scouts has its aim to help a Scout (a boy from 8-18) to develop into a good man and a useful citizen. He must be able to handle sails, to use a compass, to lay and light a fire outdoors, he must know first aid and develop his interest in music, literature, drama, arts and films. A Scout is a friend to animals, he's "clean in thought, word and deed". He must obey the Scout Law.'

The Girl Guides Association includes girls from 7 to 21. The programme of training is planned to develop intelligence and practical skills, including cookery, needlework and childcare. The training and the ideals are much the same as those of the Boy Scouts. Like a Scout, a Girl Guide must be a friend to animals. She must be "pure in thoughts and deed". She must be loyal to God and the Queen.

As for me, I'm not a member of any organization. But if I had chance, I would become a Scout, because I like the aims of this organization and the ways they are achieved.

 

Questions:

1.What is the 21st century characterized by?

2.When did the greatest number of international organizations appeared?

3.How many international organizations were there in the 1980s?

4.What do you know about the United Nations?

5.What do you know about the UNESCO?

6.What do you know about medical organizations?

7.What do you know about Greenpeace?

8.What youth organizations do you know?

9. What is the Boy Scouts movement?

10. What is the Girl Guides Association?

 

Who needs the Red Cross?

Ask most people to list the number of current trouble spots in the world and you will get an underestimate. Every year millions of people experience the horrors of war, famine, earthquakes or floods. They are forced to leave their homes and to face the insecurity of living as refugees. So what exactly does the Red Cross do to help?

    It provides camps and food centres for people who are displaced and undernourished4 because of wars or natural disasters.

    It locates and reunites refugee children with their families.

    It keeps the world informed about what is happening in various conflicts.

    It stays impartial — never taking sides or becoming involved in the politics of war.

 

Look quickly at the youth magazine article about the Red Cross. Answer these questions.

a What is the message of the article?

b Do you think it's a good article? Why?

с What do you think of the Red Cross organization?

 

THE RED CROSS

The history of the organization

The International Red Cross fights war and starvation around the world. But how did it all start?

The idea of the Red Cross began on 24 June, 1859. At that time the French and Austrian armies were fighting in Solferino — a town in the north of Italy. After 16 hours of fighting, 4,000 soldiers lay dead or dying on the battlefield. Henry Dunant, a Swiss businessman who was visiting Solferino at the time was horrified by the suffering of these soldiers. He decided to help and immediately organized aid for the wounded — assisted by the people from nearby villages.

After returning to Switzerland, Dunant organized a worldwide network of aid societies with the help of his international business contacts, and so the International Committee for Relief to the Wounded was set up. In 1863, the Swiss flag — a white cross on a red background — was adopted (with the colours reversed) as the symbol of the organization — a red cross on a white background. As a result people started to call the organization the Red Cross.

In the Eastern war of 1876, which took place in the Balkans, Turkey decided to use a red crescent on a white background in place of a red cross, in order not to offend Muslim soldiers. Today there are Red Cross and Red Crescent organizations in 165 countries around the world. (The red crescent is the symbol of the organization in twenty-five Muslim countries.)

 

Read about the history of the Red Cross. Answer the questions.

a Who started the Red Cross?

b Which armies fought in the battle of Solferino?

с What did the Swiss businessman do after the battle?

d How did he organize his aid network?

e When did the red cross become the symbol of the organization?

f Why was the red crescent symbol first used?

g In how many countries is the organization represented by the Red Crescent?

 

 

To find out more about the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, contact:

The International Committee of the Red Cross

19 Avenue de la Paix

CH-1202 Geneva

Switzerland http://www.icrc.ch

 

 

Pupils’ Press Releases

 

Release 1

(Волохова)

 

Red Crescent

The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies is the world's largest humanitarian organization, providing assistance without discrimination as to nationality, race, religious beliefs, class or political opinions. Founded in 1919, the International Federation comprises 181 member Red Cross and Red Crescent societies. There are more societies in formation. The Red Crescent is used in place of the Red Cross in many Islamic countries. In 1876, during the Russco-Turkish war, the Ottoman Empire decided to use a red crescent on white instead of the red cross. Egypt also decided to use the crescent and Persia later decided to use a red lion and sun on white.

The Federation's mission is to improve the lives of vulnerable people by mobilizing the power of humanity. Vulnerable people are those who are at greatest risk from situations that threaten their survival, or their capacity to live with an acceptable level of social and economic security and human dignity. Often, these are victims of natural disasters, poverty brought about by socio-economic crises, refugees, and victims of health emergencies. The emblems go back a long way. The red cross on a white background was formally adopted in the first Geneva Convention of 1864. The red crescent was adopted by the Ottoman empire in 1876 during the war with Russia.

 

Supply the missing words and combinations:

1.   Founded in 1919, the International Federation comprises 181 member ... societies.

2.   The Red Crescent is used in place of the Red Cross in many ... countries.

3.... also decided to use the crescent and Persia later decided to use a red lion and sun on white.

4.   The ... go back a long way.

5.   The red crescent was adopted by the Ottoman empire in ... during the war with Russia.

 

Find in the text English equivalents of the following:

Красный Полумесяц, Красный Крест, гуманитарная организация, Русско-Турецкая война, Османская Империя, Египет, Персия, собрание (съезд), социально-экономический кризис.

 

Current problems

The emblems worked well for a long time, but in recent decades two problems have arisen. Firstly, in some conflicts the cross or the crescent have been interpreted as having a religious significance. They do not, but this fact has occasionally compromised the neutral nature of the emblems, putting lives at risk.

Secondly, some countries and their National Societies have not felt comfortable using either the red cross or red crescent. The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies is the world's largest humanitarian organization, providing assistance without discrimination as to nationality, race, religious beliefs, class or political opinions.

 

Answer the following questions:

1.  Red Crescent it is a largest humanitarian organization ?

2.  What are the vulnerable people ?

3.  How many Organizations do you know? (name some of them).

4.  What do you know about Red Crescent ?

5.  Are you member of any organization ?

 

 

Release 2

(Попова А.)

 

Red Crescent

 

The International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement was founded to prevent and alleviate human suffering, to ensure the right for life and respect for human dignity and promote mutual understanding and friendship between peoples. It is an independent humanitarian organization giving help and support to the most vulnerable regardless of their nationality, race, class and political opinion.

The Red Crescent Society of Uzbekistan (RCSU) was founded in 1925. Before 1991 it was a member of the USSR Alliance of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies.

After the Republic of Uzbekistan gained its independence the President of the Republic signed a governmental decree "On the Red Crescent Society of Uzbekistan" in May 1992. The RCSU adopted its new Statutes and the status of an independent Society within the sovereign state at its extraordinary XVII Congress.

In 1995 the RCSU became a full member of the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) currently uniting National Societies of 176 countries with over 250 million members.

In 1998 the RCSU held it ordinary XVIII Congress.

The Society covers the entire country and includes the Karakalpak Republic, 12 regional Tashkent City branches and the Society's organization of the State Joint-Stock Railway Company. The RCSU has 200 organizations in towns and districts of the country uniting 10,000 primary organizations set up at enterprises, economic entities and educational institutions.

The Society's supreme body is its congress, which is held every five years. The National Council is its supreme executive body.

The President of the Republic of Uzbekistan Mr. Islam Karimov has been Honorary President of the Red Crescent Society of Uzbekistan since 1992.

 

Task:

1. Make up a dialogue with your classmate

2. Read and translate the text.

З. Make up questions to this text.

4. What do you think about this organization?

5. Find in this text English equivalents of the following: независимые, совершенный, облегчать, страдание, взаимный, инициатива.

 

 

Release 3

(Захожий Б.)

 

The Red Cross and Red Crescent emblems.

The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies uses as its "logo" two globally recognized emblems - the Red Cross and the Red Crescent - set on a white background within a red rectangle. The Federation's member National Societies use or one or other of these emblems; either the cross or the crescent.

The emblems go back a long way. The Red Cross on a white background was formally adopted in the first Geneva Convention of 1864. The Red Crescent was adopted by the Ottoman Empire in 1876 during the war with Russia. It was recognized in the 1929 Geneva Convention along with the red lion and sun of Persia.

For National Societies, the emblem serves two purposes; it is "indicative" (it is their logo or identification when undertaking their normal work) and it is "protective" (a protective device when they, and the medical services of their country's armed forces, are involved in conflict.) The rules on the use of these emblems are defined in international law under the Geneva Conventions of 1949.

 

Our mission and role.

The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies is the world's largest humanitarian Organization, providing assistance without discrimination as to nationality, race, religious beliefs, class or political Opinions.

Founded in 1919, the International Federation comprises 181 member Red Cross and Red Crescent societies, a Secretariat in Geneva and more than 60 delegations strategically located to support activities around the world. There are more societies in formation. The Red Crescent is used in place of the Red Cross in many Islamic countries.

The Federation's mission is to improve the lives of vulnerable people by mobilizing the power of humanity. Vulnerable people are those who are at greatest risk from situations that threaten their survival, or their capacity to live with an acceptable level of social and economic security and human dignity. Often, these are victims of natural disasters, poverty brought about by socio-economic crises, refugees, and victims of health emergencies.

 

Questions.

1.     What is a logo of "Red Crescent"?

2.     When was it recognized?

3.     What is The Federation's mission?

4.     What do you know about The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies?

 

 

Release 4

(Лейбович К.)

 

"Humanity, unbiasness, voluntariness, unity, versatility."

Red Crescent principles.

The international movement of the Red Crescent is a humanitarian organization with a unique structure that covers all the Earth. It is also an important part of the ''Red Cross and Red Crescent Federation".

Nowadays it is represented in more than 25 Muslim countries. Its power is based on existence of a large net of national societies that helps to react on any critical situation quickly and effectively. The Red Crescent gives humanitarian help to people suffering from different cataclysms and it also helps vulnerable parts of society to become more independent.

The national societies work in spirit of the RC principles. They provide help and support during the restoration period according to the demands of the countries. They act as auxiliary social organizations of the country, giving a list of favours -from help against natural disasters to social help and organization of the courses of emergency medical aid.

The main actions provided by the Red Crescent are:

* Medical help (relieving the consequences of mass infections, providing medicines, mobile hospitals, medical observations)

* medical education

*medical service work assessment

* food distribution

*providing clothes and temporary accommodation

*information about the human rights

The main difference between the Red Cross and Red Crescent is in their work field. Though they act cooperatively and are practically the same organization, the Red Crescent is used in the Muslim countries.

 

The RC/RC International Committee

A private non-political organization founded in l863. A neutral humanitarian mediator during international conflicts and civil wars. Protects both civil and military victims. Its role in military conflicts is regulated by four Geneva conventions.

 

The RC/RC Societies Federation

An organization that coordinates the actions of a wide net of societies covering all the Earth. Its aim is to prevent and to ease the human suffering through the actions of Red Cross and Red Crescent. It was founded in 1919 and is supported by the annual contribution of its members.

 

Questions:

1)    Is Red Crescent an independent organization?

2)    Why does it have such large capabilities?

3)    How does it depend on the Red Cross?

4)    Are its activities similar to the Red Cross ones?

5)    How do the RC principles influence on its work?

6)    What were International Committee and Societies Federation made for?

 

History and Organization

The International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement was founded to prevent and alleviate human suffering, to ensure the right for life and respect for human dignity and promote mutual understanding and friendship between peoples. It is an independent humanitarian organization giving help and support to the most vulnerable regardless of their nationality, race, class and political opinion.

The Red Crescent Society of Uzbekistan (RCSU) was founded in 1925. Before 1991 it was a member of the USSR Alliance of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies.

After the Republic of Uzbekistan gained its independence the President of the Republic signed a governmental decree "On the Red Crescent Society of Uzbekistan" in May 1992. The RCSU adopted its new Statutes and the status of an independent Society within the sovereign state at its extraordinary XVII Congress.

In 1995 the RCSU became a full member of the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) currently uniting National Societies of 176 countries with over 250 million members.

In 1998 the RCSU held it ordinary XVIII Congress.

The Society covers the entire country and includes the Karakalpak Republic, 12 regional Tashkent City branches and the Society's organization of the State Joint-Stock Railway Company. The RCSU has 200 organizations in towns and districts of the country uniting 10,000 primary organizations set up at enterprises, economic entities and educational institutions.

The Society's supreme body is its congress, which is held every five years. The National Council is its supreme executive body.

The President of the Republic of Uzbekistan Mr. Islom Karimov has been Honorary President of the Red Crescent Society of Uzbekistan since 1992.

 

Address: 30,Yusuf Hos Hojib St. 700031 Tashkent, Uzbekistan

Contact Information

Tel: (998) (712) 563741, 568040

Fax: (998) (712) 561801

E-mail: rcsuz@uzpak.uz

Headquarters

President: Mrs. Oktamkhon T. Vakhidova

Vice-President: Mr. Michail V. Kremkov

Secretary General: Mrs. Ozoda M.Mukhitdinova

Chief of the International Cooperation Department: Mr. Pulat J. Abdullakhanov

Chief of the Organizing Department: Mr.Takhir S. Sabitov

Chief of the DP Department: Mr. Igor N.Listopadov

Chief of the Medical Social Service: Mr. Shikhrat Yusupov

Chief of ID&RD Department: Mr. Alexander A. Mospanov

Youth Coordinator: Mr. Sukhrob Rasulev

Dissemination Coordinator: Mr. Alisher M.Sattarov

Tracing Service: Mrs. Larisa G. Antonova

Chief Accountant: Mrs. Valentina Kh. Arzumanova

 

 

Release 5

(Копятина О.)

 

The Red Crescent

A number of humanitarian organizations always help people in need. The Red Crescent is one of them. It is a medical organization with national affiliates in almost every country in the world. The Red Crescent is the name used in Muslim countries, the Red Cross — in Christian countries.

The Red Crescent movement began in 1876. It was founded by Swiss businessman Dunant. During the Eastern war there were many wounded soldiers and they needed good medical help.

Now the Red Crescent works in 25 Muslim countries. It provides camps and food centres, locates and reunites refugee children with their families. They assist people suffering from horrors of war, floods, earthquakes, epidemics and accidents.

Its peacetime activities also include first aid, water safety, training of nurses' aids and mothers' assistants and maintenance of maternal and child welfare centres, clinics, blood banks and numerous other services.

 

Read the text and answer these questions:

1.      What international organizations do you know?

2.      What kind of organization is the Red Crescent?

3.      Whom was it founded by?

4.      When was it founded?

5.      What countries does it work in?

6.      What does this organization do during the war?

7.      What are its peacetime activities?

 

Say true, false or don't know:

1.      The Red Crescent works in Christian countries.

2.      The Red Crescent is an environmental organization.

3.      It was founded by Swiss businessman.

4.      This organization has affiliates in almost every country in the world.

5.      The main Headquarters of the Red Crescent are based in Arabia.

 

 

Release 6

(Дутчак)

 

History and Organization

The International Red Cross and Red Movement was founded to prevent and alleviate human suffering, to ensure the right for life and respect for human dignity and promote mutual understanding and friendship between peoples. It is an independent humanitarian organization giving help and support to the most vulnerable regardless of their nationality, race, class and political opinion. The Red Crescent Society of Uzbekistan (RCSU) was founded in 1925. Before 1991 it was a member of the USSR Alliance of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies.

After the Republic of Uzbekistan gained its independence the President of the Republic signed a governmental decree "On the Red Crescent Society of Uzbekistan" in May 1992. The RCSU adopted its new Statutes and the status of an independent Society within the sovereign state at its extraordinary XVII Congress.

In 1995 the RCSU became a full member of the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) currently uniting National Societies of 176 countries with over 250 million members. In 1998 the RCSU held it ordinary XVIII Congress.

The Society covers the entire country and includes the Kara Kalpak Republic, 12 regional Tashkent City branches and the Society's organization of the State Joint-Stock Railway Company. The RCSU has 200 organizations in towns and districts of the country uniting 10,000 primary organizations set up at enterprises, economic entities and educational institutions.

The Society's supreme body is its congress, which is held every five years. The National Council is its supreme executive body.

The President of the Republic of Uzbekistan Mr. Islam Karimov has been Honorary President of the Red Crescent Society of Uzbekistan since 1992.

 

Questions:

1. In what year was the RCSU be found?

2. How many organizations have had the RCSU in towns?

3. Since which year Mr. Islam Karimov has been Honorary President of the RCSU?

4. What is the Society's supreme body?

 

Complete the sentences:

1.   The International... and...Movement was founded to prevent and alleviate human suffering.

2.   The Society covers the entire country and includes the...Republic.

 

Speak on Red Cross and Red Crescent. Use the following Plan:

1.  The International Red Cross and Red Movement.

2.  After the Republic of Uzbekistan.

3.  The congress.

4.  The President.

 

 

Release 7

(Ревякина)

 

The Red Crescent

The Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement began almost 140 years ago when on a hot June day in 1859 Henry Dunant, a Swiss banker travelling on business in Northern Italy, witnessed the aftermath of the Battle of Solferino a horrifying and bloody conflict between 300,000 soldiers from Imperial Austria and the Franco-Sardinian Alliance. In 1862 Dunant published his recollection of this experience as A Memory of Solferino and remained convinced that the power of humanity could be engaged to alleviate suffering on a global scale. Vulnerable people exist in all societies, he argued, and should be afforded the same care and consideration.

The crescent is also often used to symbolize the Islamic faith. However, it should be noted that the crescent was not a symbol used for Islam by Muhammad or any other early Muslim rulers, in fact the Islam is against appointing "Holy Symbols". Despite that the 5-branch star is quite often used as the symbol of the Islam. A Red Crescent substitutes the Red Cross in Islamic countries (but for pre-revolution Iran). But it is interesting to notice that very few Arab nations use the symbol. Morocco, which has never known the Turkish occupation, has only a 5-branch star on its flag. The new, American-designed, post-Saddam Iraqi flag uses that symbol as well. This is of importance, since many Christian fundamentalists such as Jack Chick use this symbolism to make a claim that Allah was in fact a moon-god worshipped by the pre-Islamic Arabs. This argument is sometimes used to argue that the god of Islam is different from that of the Jews or Christians.

 

Complete the sentences:

1)      The Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement began in...

2)      The crescent is also often symbolize the ... faith.

3)      In ... Dunant published his recollection of this experience as a

 

Answer the questions:

1)  When did the Red Crescent Movement begin?

2)  Who was the founder of Red Crescent?

3)  What is the symbol of Red Crescent?

4)  At what countries the name Red Crescent use?

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