Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Universal Declaration of Human Rights
charter of civil and political rights drawn up by the United Nations in 1948.
These rights include the right to life, liberty, education and equality before
the law; to freedom of movement, religion, association, and information; and
to a nationality. Under the European Convention of Human Rights of 1950, the
Council of Europe established the European Commission of Human Rights
(headquarters in Strasbourg, France), which investigates complaints by states
or individuals, and its findings are examined by the European Court of Human
Rights (established in 1959), whose compulsory jurisdiction has been
recognized by a number of states, including the UK. In 1988 the European Court
condemned as unlawful the UK procedure of holding those suspected of terrorism
for up to seven days with no judicial control.
rights are those rights and privileges held to belong to any man, regardless
of any legal provision that may or may not exist for them in his legal system,
simply because man, as man, may not be forbidden certain things by any
government. Exactly what the list of these rights is, or why we are entitled
to them, varies from thinker to thinker. Since the Second World War there have
been several quasi-official listings. The two most prominent are probably the
United Nations Charter of Human Rights, and the European Declaration of Human
Rights. This latter is actually partially enforceable, because it forms the
legal basis for the European Court of Human Rights, to which citizens of
subscribing nations may bring cases against their own governments. Typical
elements on any list of basic human rights will be, for example, the right to
freedom of speech, religion, the right to family life, the right to fair trial
procedures in criminal cases, the right to be protected against the inhumane
punishment, the right to political liberty, and so on.
rights are those rights which are, or which it is argued should be, protected
constitutionally or legally as fundamental rights that everyone should enjoy,
irrespective of his or her status. They fall essentially into two categories:
basic human rights to fair and decent treatment for the individual; and
political rights which are seen as vital for a healthy and liberal society,
whether or not they are actually desired by many people.
first category includes the right to legal equality and to equality of
treatment and provision, the right to a fair trial and the right to be exempt
from unjust or inhuman punishment. The right not to be discriminated against
because of one's race, whether by the government or a private agent, as well
as protection against arbitrary arrest, a biased jury, police brutality and so
on, are seen as basic rights that all should enjoy, and which require
constitutional protection in any society.
specifically political rights include the right to freedom of speech, to form
or join a trade union, to worship as one wishes, and to protest in public
against government policy. All these are rights taken for granted in a
liberal democracy, but they are arguably not absolutely basic to decent
(Hutchinson Gallup. Info 92. The Penguin Dictionary of Politics)
and translate the text using a dictionary if necessary
in the text the English equivalents for the following:
прав человека; хартия; политические права; свобода; равенство перед законом;
Европейский Совет; штаб-квартира; комиссия; рассматривает жалобы; Европейский
Суд по правам человека; осуждать; обязательный; признавать; подозревать;
юридический контроль; привилегии; запрещать; выдающийся; несправедливое и
негуманное наказание; быть освобожденным от; конституционная защита;
Supply the missing words or word combinations choosing among given below.
The universal Declaration of Human Rights is a charter of…
In 1988 the European Court condemned as unlawful the UK procedure of…
Since the Second World War there have been several…
The two most prominent are…
Civil rights are those rights which are protected constitutionally or…
They fall essentially into two categories: basic human rights and…
The first category includes the right to legal equality and…
The more specifically political rights include the right to freedom of speech,
legally as fundamental rights;
and political rights drawn by the United Nations in 1948;
those suspected of terrorism for up to seven days with no judicial control;
the United Nations Charter of Human Rights and the European Declaration of
or join the trade-union;
equality of treatment and provision.
Study the following words and use them in sentences of your own.
to belong; legal system; partially enforceable; basic human rights; criminal
cases; to protect against; the inhuman punishment; status; vital for; a fair
trial; to be exempt; unjust; arbitrary arrest; a biased jury; police
Reread the text and answer the following questions:
What is the name of the charter of civil and political rights drawn up by the
United Nations in 1948?
What rights are included in this charter?
What organization established the European Commission of Human Rights in 1950?
What are its responsibilities?
What are the responsibilities of the European Court of Human Rights?
Define the following key terms and memorize the definitions:
equality; jurisdiction; commission; condemn; procedure; discrimination;
Match the two parts:
cause of suffer
keeping from harm
course of action
Speak on the list given below, try to guess the meaning of these words:
Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, International Fund for
Agricultural Development, General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade,
International Trade Organization, United Nations Disaster Relief Coordinator,
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization,
International Atomic Energy. Agency, International Bank of Reconstruction and
Development, United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund, United
Nations Centre for Human Settlements, International Aviation Organization;
International; Telecommunication Union, International Development Association,
International Finance Association, International Labour Organization,
International Monetary Fund, United Nations Conference on Trade and
Development, United Nations Environment Programme, United Nations Fund for
Population Activities, United Nations High Commission for Refugees, United
Nations Institute for Training and Research.
Comment on civil and political rights in Russia.
Comment on the following and give your reasons for or against.
Do you feel any social inequality?
The root of social inequality is poverty.
Can life be organized without inequality?
rights made simple
a simplified text of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR). All 30
rights are equal to each other and it is the duty of governments to protect
and promote them.
Human Beings are free and equal in dignity and rights.
All people are entitled to rights without distinction based on race, colour,
sex, language, religion, opinion, origin, property, birth or residency.
Right to life liberty and security of person.
Freedom from slavery.
Freedom from torture.
Right to be treated equally by the law.
Right to equal protection by the law.
Right for all to effective remedy by competent tribunal.
Freedom from arbitrary arrest.
Right to fair public hearing by Independent tribunal.
Right to presumption of innocence until proven guilty at public trial with all
guarantees necessary for defence.
Right to privacy in home, family and correspondence.
Freedom of movement in your own country and the right to leave and return to
Right to political asylum in other countries.
Right to nationality.
Right to marriage and family and to equal right of men and women during and
Right to own property.
Freedom of thought and conscience and religion.
Freedom of opinion and expression and to seek, receive and impart information.
Freedom of Association and assembly.
Right to take part in and select government.
Right to social security and realisation of economic, social and cultural
Right to work, to equal pay for equal work and to form and join trade unions.
Right to reasonable hours of work and paid holidays.
Right to adequate living standard for self and family, including food,
housing, clothing, medical care and social security.
Right to education.
Right to participate in cultural life and to protect intellectual property
Right to social and international order permitting these freedoms to be
Each person has responsibilities to the community and others as essential for
a democratic society.
Repression in the name of rights is unacceptable.
Answer the questions:
whether you think people in the 20th century had more problems than they have
measures would you take to improve people’s position if you were the
do you think, are more socially active in our country?
are the advantages to live under UDHR?
is women’s participation in power lower than that of men?
Should women and children have some privileges?
Should life be changed in the near future in Russia?
you satisfied with all the articles?
would you advise to add to the Declaration?
you could change one article what would that be? Why?
stressed the importance of civil and political rights like the right to choose
a government, freedom of expression, conscience and belief.
Communist bloc gave priority to economic, social and cultural rights, such as
the right to work, housing and access to health care.
result two covenants were adopted in 1966 to give legal force to the UDHR:
The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
are human rights really universal?
Vienna Declaration of 1993 stated: "All human rights are universal,
indivisible and interdependent and interrelated... While the significance of
national and regional peculiarities and various historical, cultural and
religious backgrounds must be borne in mind, it is the duty of States,
regardless of their political, economic and cultural systems, to promote and
protect all human rights and fundamental freedoms."
some countries have argued that human rights are culturally relative, and that
the Universal Convention on Human Rights amounts to an imposition of Western
values on other societies.
I. Read and translate
the text without a dictionary.
II. Put questions to
III. Make up a
dialogue according the theme raised in the text.
IV. Make the list of
the most important rights you would like to see in Russia nowadays.
PROTECTING HUMAN RIGHTS
countries have signed international conventions or treaties guaranteeing the
protection of human rights. But what are human rights, how are they enforced,
and are they the same for everyone?
are human rights?
rights usually refer to those rights that society has agreed are fundamental
to people everywhere, such as the right to life, the right to live without
oppression, and the right to equal freedom of opportunity.
World War II it was up to each country to decide what rights to grant its
citizens but in 1948 the United Nations adopted the Universal Declaration of
Human Rights (UDHR).
articles are the foundation upon which all later human rights instruments are
is the UN Human Rights Commission?
Human Rights Commission was created in 1946 as the main vehicle for promoting
acceptance of the principles laid down in the Universal Declaration of Human
Rights. Its first 20 years were spent drawing up the two International
covenants that gave legal force to the Universal Declaration.
not until 1970 that it was authorised to investigate persistent human rights
abuses. Since then its profile has increased and its annual meetings in Geneva
each March are attended by hundreds of diplomats and campaigners. Countries
will go to great lengths to avoid being criticised.
all countries respect human rights?
countries are criticised by the UN Human Rights Commission and
non-governmental organisations for human rights abuses.
permanent members of the UN Security Council - Russia and China - have come
under attack in the last year.
has been accused of ignoring international law in its war in Chechnya, where
civilian casualties have been high.
has been criticised for the severe sentences it hands out to political
dissidents, and for repressing freedom of expression and freedom of religion.
democracies do not escape condemnation. Human Rights Watch, for example, has
raised concern about the UK's anti-terrorism legislation, and the death
penalty and police abuse in the US.
are human rights enforced?
of legislation exists to protect human rights, but it is much more difficult
to ensure states respect the treaties they have signed.
covenants - on civil and political rights, and economic, social and cultural
rights - were adopted in 1966 to guarantee the rights enshrined in the UDHR.
Other treaties - on children's rights, women's rights, racial discrimination
and torture -have followed.
every government has signed up to at least one of these international
treaties, with some notable exceptions. The US and Somalia are the only two
countries not to have ratified the Convention on the Rights of the Child.
Organisation of African Unity, the Council of Europe and the Organisation of
American States have all adopted charters or conventions to further human
rights in their regions. They impose additional binding obligations on
I. Read and translate
the text using a dictionary.
II. Comment on the
What do some
people think about protecting Human Rights?
Is there a
problem with Human Rights in your native city/country?
What are the
reasons for increasing protection of Human Rights?
What is the
role of the UN Human Rights Commission?
How are human
haven’t ratified the Convention on the Rights of the Child?
treaties are followed after 1966?
Do you think
the UDHR really influence the state’s social behaviour?
Do you agree
that there is no justification for terrorism, racism?
breed great crimes, don’t they?
be punished for child abuse, shouldn’t they?
can the state take to protect human rights?
III. Speak on what
universal schoolchildren rights you would like to have in your school?
IV. Write down the
Universal School Rights.
V. Discuss the
Universal School Rights for school #63 written by O. Kopyatina, 10A.
Universal School Rights for school №63.
Every child is unique and has his own talent.
Every child must be respected.
Every child must be given the best chance to develop his abilities.
Teachers and other staff must help children to prepare for adult life.
Children must be taught about their rights and rights of other people.
All children have the right to non-discrimination whatever their race, sex,
religion, language, opinion or family background.
All children have the right to express their views and they must be listened
Every child has the right to protection.
Everybody must be polite.
Everybody should do the things in the way he wants, but mustn't affect other
Every child must try to get as more knowledge from the school as he can.
Teachers must be always ready to help children.
Every child can share his problems with teachers and school psychologists.
Every child has the right for the rest during the school day.
Every child can choose his school and if he wants he can go to another school.
Every child mustn't be offended or beaten at school.
Every child can join the organization he likes.
Every child mustn't be forced to do anything.
Every child is independent.
Every child must assert his rights.
Kopyatina Olga, 10 «A».
Optional Protocol on the involvement of children in armed conflict
Optional Protocol entered into force on 12 February 2002. UNICEF encourages
all governments to ratify the text.
Worldwide, an estimated 300,000 children are engaged in armed conflict in
their countries, with tragic consequences. Often recruited or abducted to join
armies, many of these children - some younger than 10 years old - have
witnessed or taken part in acts of unbelievable violence, often against their
own families or communities. UNICEF has seen many children that had been
immunized, educated or otherwise helped by programmes later systematically
brutalized when armed conflicts took place in their countries.
article 38, the Convention on the Rights of the Child urges governments to
take all feasible measures to ensure that children have no direct part in
hostilities. On 25 May 2000, the United Nations General Assembly adopted by
consensus an Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on
the involvement of children in armed conflict which raises from 15 to 18 years
the age at which direct participation in armed conflict will be permitted and
establishes a ban on compulsory recruitment below 18 years.
addition, the Protocol requires States to make a declaration, upon
ratification, regarding the age at which national forces will permit voluntary
recruitment, as well as the steps that States will take to ensure that such
recruitment is never forced or coerced. This clause is particularly important
because, although the Optional Protocol sets 18 as the minimum age for
compulsory recruitment, it does not establish age 18 as a minimum for
voluntary recruitment. For that reason, UNICEF is encouraging all states to
ratify the Optional Protocol, making unequivocal statements in their
endorsement of 18 as the minimum age at which voluntary recruitment will be
had sought consistency on 18 years as marking the point at which adulthood
begins and the concern is for the best interests of the child, regardless of
where they live or on which side of the conflict they are situated. UNICEF has
consistently promoted the position that protection only becomes meaningful if
a clear ban is imposed on the direct and indirect participation of children
under 18 in hostilities, regardless of whether they have been forced or have
voluntarily decided to join the armed forces.
establishing 18 as a minimum age for participation in peacekeeping operations,
the United Nations set an important precedent and bolstered the efforts of all
those supporting the Optional Protocol to the Convention. The United Nations
further recommended that this policy serves as an example for police and
military forces worldwide,
calls on governments to swiftly ratify the Protocol, in order to achieve 100
ratifications by the time of the Special Session in Spring. As stated by Carol
Bellamy, "every day that we delay, the toll of death and suffering among
children in armed conflict will continue to grow - and that is simply
117 countries have signed and 88 have ratified this Protocol. See the detailed
table of participants.
I. Read the text,
translate it using a dictionary if necessary.
II. Find in the text
the English equivalents for the following:
вступить в силу; вовлекать;
вооруженный конфликт; трагические последствия; вступать в армию; невероятная
жестокость; принять все возможные меры; военные действия; вовлечение; прямое
участие; налагать запрет на; обязательный набор новобранцев.
III. Guess the meaning
of these international words:
permit; voluntary; ratify; precedent; recommend; conflict; convention;
IV. Find the synonyms
unequivocal; adulthood; to bolster.
I. Answer the
1) Why does UNICEF
fights against involving children in armed conflicts?
2) What does Article
3) Who adopted by
consensus an Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child?
When was it?
4) What is the minimum
age for compulsory recruitment?
5) What did the UN
6) What makes UNICEF
call on the governments to swiftly ratify the Protocol?
7) What are the
important instruments for the protection of children around the world?
8) What are the States
required make upon ratification?
9) What for has the
Committee adopted guidelines for each of the Optional Protocols?
II. Make up dialogues
on information given in the text above.
III. Project works:
children’s position in Russia.
suffering among children in the war against Yugoslavia.
IV. Speak on:
and harmful role of hostilities in child’s life.
The impact of
aggressive acts on children’s character.
non-discrimination, best interests and child care.
V. Write down a
composition about your childhood.
VI. Look through the
children’s works on children’s school rights. Say whose the best and why.
rights of the child.
1 All pupils have the right to choose where to study.
2 Each pupil has the right to get a good education.
3 All pupils have the right to join different organizations.
4 Each pupil has the right to be respected.
5 Each pupil has the right to leave the school if he wants or to continue his
education after compulsory secondary education.
6 Each pupil has the right to say what he thinks.
7 The school should protect pupils.
8 Pupils have the right to choose different subjects according his abilities.
9 The school must give pupils good medical care.
10 Each pupil has the right to eat good food and drink clean water.
Children have the right to express their views.
Children have the right to information.
Children have the right to take a full and active part in school life.
Children have the right to leisure.
Children have the right to teach favorite subjects.
Children have the right to good school stationery
Children have the right to graduate teachers.
Children have the right to good school building
Children have the right to teacher's help.
Children have the right to parent's support.
Children have the right to teacher's respect.
Children have the right to school with medical service.
Children have the right to good labs.
Children have the right to prize giving for good learning.
Children have the right to friendly atmosphere, tolerance and mutual respect.
Children have the right to protection from bulling.
Revyakina Y. 10A
Optional Protocol on the sale of children, child prostitution and child
supports the worldwide ratification of the Optional Protocol to the Convention
on the Rights of the Child on the sale of children, child prostitution and
child pornography (in HTML). An estimated one million children (mainly girls
but also a significant number of boys) enter the multi-billion dollar
commercial sex trade every year (see also this speech by UNICEF Executive
Director Carol Bellamy). The 2nd World Congress Against Commercial Sexual
Exploitation of Children, held in December 2001 in Yokohama and co-organized
by the Government of Japan and UNICEF, showed the commitment of the
international community - States, international organizations, NGOs - to
tackle this global issue urgently. During the negotiations for adoption of
this protocol, UNICEF had promoted the consideration of several issues aiming
at the highest level of protection for children. The Optional Protocol gives
special emphasis to the criminalization of serious violations of children's
rights - namely sale of children, illegal adoption, child prostitution and
pornography. Similarly, the text stresses the value of international
cooperation as a means of combating these transnational activities, and of
public awareness, information and education campaigns to enhance the
protection of children from these serious violations of their rights.
important to recall that as an Optional Protocol to the CRC, this text must
always be interpreted in light of the Convention as a whole and be guided
always by the principles of non-discrimination, best interests and child
110 have signed and 87 have ratified this Protocol.
I. Read the text using
a dictionary if necessary.
II. Answer the
1. What international
organizations fight for children rights?
2. Why is it a serious
problem in nowadays?
3. How many children
enter the commercial sex trade every year?
4. When did the 2nd
World Congress Against Commercial Sex Exploitation of Children hold?
5. What did it show?
6. What had UNICEF
promoted during the negotiations for adoption the protocol?
7. What does the
Optional Protocol give special emphasis to?
8. What should people
do to protect children from serious violations of their rights?
9. How many states
have signed and ratified the Protocol?