IV. Love. Marriage. Family in Russia.
Listen to the text and answer the questions:
evening, although he was nervous, Joe decided to propose to his girlfriend,
Linda. She accepted his proposal, they became engaged and he gave her a ring.
After a year they had saved enough money to get married (they were both over
18 so they did not need their parents' consent). Some people have a religious
ceremony with a priest, but Joe and Linda decided on a civil ceremony in a
registry office. On the day of the wedding Linda, the bride, was very calm,
but Joe, the bridegroom, was nervous. Afterwards, at the reception, speeches
were made and the guests drank a toast to the happy couple, who finally left
for a honeymoon in Spain.
consent, religious ceremony, civil ceremony, bride, bridegroom, a toast to…,
was Joe nervous one evening? 2. Did Linda accept his proposal? 3. How old were
the young people when they got married? 4. Did they have a religious or a
civil ceremony? 5. Where did the newly married couple go after the wedding
2. Read and translate
the text using the dictionary if necessary.
Marriage: Convenience over Romance
should we disconnect love and convenience, especially while thinking about the
essence of human actions and feelings concerning such a conventional thing as
marriage? There is obviously no denying the fact that love implies convenience
in almost all its manifestations. What is more, we are either involved in this
matter or observe it everyday when watching TV, reading newspapers, books (in
many cases pulp fiction). Nowadays we face a tendency that people confuse
these two ideas: love and convenience; and do not feel ashamed of the fact
that these notions - wide apart as the poles in many respects -are treated as
one. Not that love has lost its significance for modern society, but it has
acquired some new, fresh meaning.
with this change we can speak about changes in family life as a consequence of
the first change. Any idea aimed at lauding traditional family values may be
interpreted as a desire to impose some old-fashioned views and a bound-to-fail
style of living upon the new 'sufficiently mature and experienced' generation.
One may think that young people, being on the threshold of matrimony, exclude
any idea of romance (love) as the basis of their decision. In many cases the
answer is yes - which is quite true. I strongly believe that such
people can be called happy. To be always reasonable is a great quality which
only few of us possess; while others in their turn simply pretend that they
are such. But it should be mentioned that fools who believe in love do exist.
They consider themselves to be the centre of the universe; they believe in
chivalry. Just for fun I'd like to quote how one muser calls his sweetheart:
'You are a comet in the world of fading stars; you are moonlight; you are the
blue in my ocean; you are the sky in my night, and the cornucopia of stars I
see in the Texas sky.
sparkling dew on the nape of a rose..'. I have nothing against him if he can
provide his wife with financial security, which is certainly of primary
importance for marital success.
suppose I have made myself quite clear: that nowadays the overwhelming
evidence is that only convenience (or love in its new. meaning) matters when
people contemplate marriage. Here it is possible to speak of any form of
convenience: emotional security, mutual understanding, self-reliance, cultural
similarities, intellectual community, promoting a career, coming into money.
When hurrying into matrimony a person, should keep his eyes open and realize
what he will get put of this marriage. It should be his main concern, and only
after that he can give way to feelings, emotions. I think that only such
couples who marry for convenience and advantage establish a life-long union
which makes all other people envious. What may be called cynicism or egotism
in this situation is the only means to survive in the world and it is the only
reality that exists.
marriage is no longer that hackneyed idea that when people love each other
they should marry and live happily, and have a lot of children and be proud of
them and serve them as a model of their future life. It makes me sick! A nice
fairy tale, isn't it? I already imagine how some people, begin sobbing while
reading these lines. I feel only pity for them. I haven't met such 'exhibits'
in my life and I hope I won't. Strange as it may seem - their stupidity can
break my heart.
is business, so treat it accordingly! Invest your money in convenience and you
will derive your profit, that is marital success!
Answer the following questions:
you sure that love implies conveniences in almost all its manifestations?
we say that all of us are involved in this matter every day?
tendency do we face now?
love loose its significance for modern society?
young people exclude any idea of romance (love) as the basis of their decision
young people still believe in love, chivalry?
questions to the text.
the definitions of the following words:
Marriage, proposal, couple, to engage, wedding.
Translate the words and word-combinations:
household, tribe, clan, descendant, ancestor, forefather, heredity,
hereditary, paternal, one’s own flesh and blood, in-laws
up sentences of your own using the words below:
smb., to be smb’s. date, to go out with smb., to court smb., boyfriend,
girlfriend, bridegroom, bride, fiancée, newlyweds, marriage knot, single,
spouse, divorced, separated, bachelor, spinster, old maid.
1. Discuss the
statements about marriage which express different opinions:
wouldn’t exist without marriage.
is important for the children.
keeps couples together.
marriage license is a worthless piece of paper.
lot of married people get divorced.
2. Comment on these
and wives who both work should share domestic chores.
problems of having granny in the family.
on marriage and family matters in secondary school might be helpful in
preserving the family.
life feels the stress of the social life.
is morally wrong and marriage should be preserved at all costs.
at later ages are more stable.
begins at home.
FAMILY LIFE IN HISTORICAL CONTEXT
Lesson in History
Research general information characterizing the fourteenth century; describe
the most important events in Russia and in Britain in that period.
Who were the rulers of these countries?
Learn the following words and phrases:
doubt, to be hard, to obey smb., to trust, disobedient, exhausting, the wife
of a noble, responsibilities, to be in charge of, a harvest, to run the
household, manor, to improve smth., wealth, to look after children.
Family Life in the Late Middle Ages
is known about the life of English women in the Middle Ages, but without doubt
it was hard. The Church taught that women should obey their husbands. It also
spread two very different ideas about women: that they should be pure and holy
like the Virgin Mary; and that, like Eve, they could not be trusted and were a
moral danger to men. Such religious teaching led men both to worship and also
to look down on women, and led women to give in to men's authority.
was usually the single most important event in the lives of men and women. But
the decision itself was made by the family, not the couple themselves. This
was because by marriage a family could improve its wealth and social position.
Everyone, both rich and poor, married for mainly financial reasons. Once
married, a woman had to accept her husband as her master. A disobedient wife
was usually beaten. It is unlikely that love played much of a part in most
first duty of every wife was to give her husband children, preferably sons.
Because so many children died as babies, and because there was little that
could be done if a birth went wrong, producing children was dangerous and
exhausting. Yet it is was the future for every wife from twenty or younger
until she was forty.
of a noble had other responsibilities. When her lord was away, she was in
charge of the villagers, the harvest and the animals. She also had to defend
the manor if it was if was attacked. She had to run the household, welcome
visitors, and store enough food, including salted meat, for winter. She was
expected to have enough knowledge of herbs and plants to make suitable
medicines for those in the village who were sick. She probably visited the
poor ant sick in the village, showing that the rulers "cared" for them. She
had little time for her own children, who in any case were often sent away at
the age of eight to another manor, the boys to "be made into men".
women, of course, were peasants, busy making food, making cloth and making
clothes from the cloth. They worked in the fields, looked after the children,
the geese, the pigs and the sheep, made the cheese and grew the vegetables.
The animals probably shared the family shelter at night. The family home was
dark and smelly. A woman's position improved if her husband died. She could
get control of the money her family had given the husband at the time of
marriage, usually about one-third of his total land and wealth. But she might
have to marry again: men wanted her land, and it was difficult to look after
it without the help of a man.
the text Divide it into parts; make a plan of the text.
the answers to the following questions:
was the position of the Church towards to a woman in the family?
was the most wide spread reason for marriage in those times?
What were the main responsibilities of the wife in the family?
could a woman gain control of her family's income?
Give the English equivalents to the Russian words and word-combinations.
мясо, соответствующие медикаменты, убогие и больные, делить кров, получить
контроль над деньгами, одна треть земли и состояния, вести домашнее хозяйство,
чистый и святый, моральное искушение, поклоняться.
the word-combinations with the verb to make, learn them.
the words with the same meanings.
to be sick
to be ill
to make better
a list of responsibilities: of the wife of a noble; of the wife of a peasant.
дополнительной информации о событиях данного исторического отрезка времени в
странах: Россия, Британия, США. Как события в стране нашли отражения в укладе
быта и семьи этих стран;
игра: утро в семье феодала; в семье крестьянина;
и использование картинок для описания жизни людей в данный период;
по музею, по историческим залам;
"Путешествие во времени" с использованием различных форм диалогов (запрос
информации, сообщение информации, взаимный обмен информацией, обмен
at the picture “Unequal Marriage” by V.V. Pukirev and describe it using a
dictionary if necessary
Marriage” by V.V. Pukirev (1862, STG)
Answer the following questions:
you ever seen the picture before?
do you know about Russian painting in the XIX century?
was this painting completed?
was this canvas exhibited before P. Tretyakov bought it for his gallery in
other canvases of this painter do you know?
Comment on the following quotations:
cannot be forced.
is not all cakes and ail. (Love is not a bed of roses).
is no such thing as love.
are born to be happy.
problems face this young woman in her marriage?
best friend is going to marry a man who is old enough to be her father. What
would you advice her?
what you would do if you were in the girl’s position?
there any changes in the people’s perception of unequal marriage nowadays?
if you can approve of the girl’s actions. Give your arguments.
problems of social life do women try to solve agreeing to unequal marriages?
сводных и сравнительных таблиц жизненного уклада в семье в различные периоды,
в разных странах;
рефератов и сочинений по темам: "Влияние политической жизни в стране на жизнь
и быт в семье: "Глобальные исторические изменения и их влияние на жизнь людей
в разных странах. Сравнительный анализ", "Если бы я мог путешествовать во
времени, я бы....";
рекламных проспектов, рассказывающих о залах музея посвященных различным
предлагается по темам:
"The Family in the Stuart Age"; "The Tudors' Century"; "The 18th Century
A Project Work
1. Look at the famous
painting “Before Marriage”, by F. Zhuravlyov (1874) and describe it using a
“Before Marriage”, by
F. Zhuravlyov (1874)
2. Find out
information about F. Zhuravlyov and his works.
3. Write down an essay
on topic: “The 19th Century Family in Russia”
4. Compare the
paintings “Before Marriage” and “An Unequal Marriage” and write down your own
opinion on women’s position in a Russian family in the 19th century.
5. Use the following
proverbs in situations of your own:
Marriages are made
A good husband
should be deaf and a good wife should be blind.
Love – for pleasure,
marriage – for convenience.
was by an unorthodox route that Pavel Fedotov, officer of the household troops
in the Finland regiment, became an artist. Born in the outskirts of Moscow,
the son of a retired lieutenant, his childhood was spent in poverty. The boy
would sit for whole days on a hay-shed, observing all that was going on in the
neighbouring yards and streets. These first childhood impressions left their
mark on Fedotov's creative work: 'The store of observations made at the very
start of my life,' he wrote later, 'constitute the basis for my talent.'
father wanted to see him in a military career, and at the age of ten he was
sent to the Moscow Cadet Corps. This was the start of years of monotonous and
wearisome training. But it was then that the boy's artistic bent revealed
itself. His first essays—portraits of friends and caricatures—proved
successful. On finishing the Cadet Corps in 1833, Fedotov was appointed to the
household troops of the Finland regiment in St. Petersburg, where he served
for ten years (1834-44). Nicholas I's army was plagued by endless reviews and
manoeuvres and a mania for parades. As a distraction from the boredom and
monotony. Fedotov read a lot, studied languages, took an interest in music and
wrote poetry; but as before his main hobby was painting and drawing. At around
this time he started attending evening classes at the Academy of Arts. His
pencil brought to life scenes of senseless, exhausting drills; the themes of
his drawings and water-colours were military exercises and camp service.
time and effort Fedotov put into his artistic hobby, the more clearly he
realised that he would have to choose between painting and a military career.
He was forced to give even more thought to the matter by a letter from the
well-known fable-writer Ivan Krylov, who, having been impressed by the talent
of the young officer, strongly advised him to give up military service and
'dedicate yourself to your true calling—the depiction of the life of the
and translate the text using a dictionary if necessary.
in the text the English equivalents to the Russian words and word
лейтенант, полк, военная карьера, служить, армия, маневры, парад.
Russian equivalents to the following words and combinations according to the
childhood, poverty, impressions, creative work, observations, to constitute
the basis for one’s talent, portrait, caricatures, to write poetry, to study
languages, main hobby, to attend evening classes, to bring to life, to be
questions to the text.
at the “Self-portrait” and describe the artist, his appearance, character.
Translate the text and make up a dialogue.
Fedotov painted The Fastidious Bride, based on Krylov's fable of the same
title. Now this painting is exhibited in the State Tretyakov Gallery. The
characters are described with ruthless satire: the old maiol, her bridegroom -
a fashionably dressed hunchback - and the overjoyed parents. The work is a
brilliant example of Fedotov's painting skills. The years of intensive work
had not been in vain: the artist had learned to convey the material texture of
objects with great virtuosity - from the sheen of mahogany and the rippling of
the bride's silk dress to the gilding on the frames and the soft nap of the
Composition was becoming one of the most important expressive factors in
Fedotov's work, serving to bring out the main idea and concentrate the
attention on the chief protagonists. The plot of the picture is made easily,
it is brilliantly painted in accordance with the protagonists and living
conditions, it is clearly readable by the witnessers what is on in the
room, what was before and what will be next moment. The place of action is
drawn with few details only, but it is done skillfully. Thus Fedotov is seen
here as a real master, who is able to achieve mole in art. In this painting
for the first time the artist has come closely to ideal, when the quality
itself provokes to enjoy this work of art apart from the unattractiveness of
“Fastidious Bride”, by
P. Fedotov (1847)
the questions and answer them:
is the name of this painting?
is the painter of the canvas "The Major's Marriage Proposal"? (1848)
When was this painting completed?
is the canvas exhibited?
the painting "The Major's Marriage Proposal" bring Fedotov widespread fame?
genre does this picture belong to?
is the main idea of the canvas?
Can we say the major tries to improve his circumstances by marring a rich
does the action take place?
the family in the merchant's house getting ready to receive the suitor?
does an ordinary, undistinguished episode from the merchant-class life take an
universal meaning in this painting?
Fedotov ridiculing the merchant's vanity, the major's profit seeking, the
bride's air and graces or the mother's coarseness?
object of Fedotov's criticism was the morality of people of different classes,
the artist criticise people who turned marriage into a profitable exercise,
into a deal?
we say it was a condemnation of the seamy side of everyday life which
astonished nobody in Russia of Nicholas reign?
we realize that what was going on was a shameless, horrifying trade in people?
Fedotov's talent manifest itself with enormous power in this painting?
its composition remarkably lively, natural and simple?
the dramatic persons closely linked with one another?
we almost read a narrative of the life, morals and mores of a merchant family
looking at this canvas?
figures are characterized by their gestures particularly, aren't they?
Major’s Marriage Proposal” by P. Fedotov (1848)
Работа по группам. Одна группа показывает или рассказывает исторические
сценки, связанные с бытом. Другая группа определяет эпоху и страну.
игра "А что у
вас?". Класс делится на две группы - представителей двух стран.
группа: У нас в
веке муж - хозяин и господин в семье. А у вас?
down a composition about woman’s role in a family life in Russia.
Comment on these points:
do you think is the best age for a girl (a boy) to get married?
makes a family happy?
is an ideal family to your mind?
you for or against marriage bureau?
young people think over the proposal very carefully? Why?