studying this unit, you should be able to understand the characterТs traits
(1) by the way the person thinks, (2) by the way other characters think of the
person, and (3) by the way other characters treat the person.
can often tell us a great deal about a person. So, too, can clothing, physique
and other external attributes. Use a picture of a person, and his (or her)
age, job, interests, nationality and character can be discussed in class.
Conclusions must be supported by reference to evidence in the picture,
so make sure you have the necessary vocabulary to describe faces, bodies,
etc., at your fingertips! If each student knows something about the person in
his picture, he can tell the others how near their guesses are to the truth.
Ex. 1 Give a detailed
description of a portrait given above.
Ex. 2 List 5-6 questions you
would like to ask a woman if you were meet her.
Ex. 3 Are there any
differences between women of the XVIII th century and women of the XX th
Ex. 4 Develop biographical
data concerning one of these women: place a year of her birth, her life, as a
child and then as a young girl, her education, her house, her lifestyle, her
work, hobbies, her family and her financial status. Use your imagination
Ex. 5 What adjectives can you
use to describe the women given above:
Ex. 6 Divide all the words
into two columns:
A person can be
A person can
intelligent, to be of great value to, talkative, meet people from all over the
world, patient, tactful, describe smth., be interested in, with a good sense
of humor, wise, be delicate to, just, kind, emotional, deal with people from
different walks of life, serious, sociable, quiet, make decisions,
responsible, loyal, punctual, admire the way smb. does smth., sincere,
devoted, to be dedicated to
Ex. 7 Use Complex Object in
your sentences with the words given below.
Example: I think him (her) to
educated Ч высокообразованным
open-minded Ч непредвз€тым,
responsible Ч ответственным
Ч искренним, пр€мым, честным
Ч общительным, дружелюбным
trustworthy Ч надежным, заслуживающим
good sense of humour Ч с хорошим чувством
sparkling wit Ч блест€щего ума,
Write in 250 words about the person who you think
deserves the title of "Personality of the Year". They can be from the world of
politics, entertainment, sport, the arts or business
Ч or they may be somebody completely unknown.
Ex. 2 Read and translate the
texts, then answer
are these people describing?
1. She's absolutely adorable.
I think she's very pretty, she makes me laugh a lot, um... she tells terrible
jokes but I like the way she tells them. She's a bit naughty sometimes and I
curse her when she gets me up at six o'clock in the morning, but when I hear
her singing in the morning, well, all is forgiven. She can twist me round her
little finger, of course.
2. He was very boring and
predictable. The kind of person who remembered birthdays and anniversaries,
but who made you angry because there was absolutely nothing spontaneous about
him. His ideas of fun were so unadventurous. Well, the first few years were
OK, but after that I'd just had enough. Reliable, stable, dependable, and
he's quite well-dressed and punctual. Sometimes he's cheerful and tells us
jokes, but other times we have to do a lot of work. We don't really know him
very well. Oh, I know he's married, but I've never met him socially or
anything like that. He seems very professional.
a description of a person that you know.
have a 'Type A' or 'Type B'
doctors believe there are two main types of personalities: "Type A" and "Type
B". Type A people are ambitious, aggressive, hard-working, and competitive;
they are sometimes impatient and are often in a hurry. Type B people are more
relaxed and don't get bothered easily. Doctors say that because they are so
hard driving, Type A personalities often suffer from stress and high blood
Pair work. Take
turns asking your partner these questions. Is your partner a Type A or Type B
personality? How about you?
a) Are you
always in a hurry to finish things?
b) Are you
ambitious and always looking for new challenges?
c) Are you
often impatient with other people?
d) Do you get
upset when people are late for appointments?
e) Do you often
do two things at once, such as watching TV while eating?
f) Do you get
upset easily when things go wrong?
g) Do you
sometimes stop listening when people are talking to you?
h) Do you
expect to be the best at everything you do?
i) Do you often
interrupt people while they are speaking?
j) Do you think
the best way to get a job done is to do it yourself?
Six or more Yes answers = Type A; six or more No answers = type B.
Ex. 3 Read the text and do the
Manners - FAQ
Two ladies of the household in which 1 live insist on drying their tights and
other undergarments on the kitchen radiator. I feel that since this is a
public room, it is an inappropriate place to dry such articles. When I
suggested that they be removed, to their bedroom radiators. I was informed
this was none of my bloody business.
this world, the demands of hygiene should be sometimes sacrificed to the
demands of etiquette. But you are completely right, while these ladies are
completely wrong. Therefore, you should be firmer with your suggestions, There
are quite a few courses of action you might follow.
simplest way. which used to be very popular in the big cities of undeveloped
countries in the 20th century, is just to steal your neighbours'
undergarments. It is also the most profitable way. If those ladies continue
their dirty actions, you may even launch a small undergarment business. Don't
forget to apply for a subsidy to your city council, as your actions would
perfectly fit in with the guidelines of New Governmental Policy of Local
Authority Support for Small and Medium Business.
method is good for rather soft and polite persons, who are unwilling to openly
challenge their offenders. But if you are brave, your prospects are much
wider. Get up early, collect the drying undergarments from the kitchen, and be
on watch. As one of your neighbours appears, throw the whole lot of their
dirty tights in her face! This may be supplemented with a strong kick, or
several. Don't forget to shout something like 'F*** YOURSELF, BLOODY
FETISHIST' during the whole action. If your neighbour is stronger than you,
you may use mops, brooms, rolling-pins, kettles or other objects during the
way is just to demonstrate to your neighbours that drying their tights on
bedroom radiators is more efficient. When they have put them on the kitchen
radiator, start, regularly and, if possible, secretly, to wet them. If this
doesn't help, try to wet them with dirty water, increasing the concentration
of mud with every session.
recently fell out with an old friend over something he heard me saying after I
had had a few drinks. I have heard through the grapevine that he feels
insulted. Is there anything you could advise me that might help to heal the
rift? A: This is a very complicated case, and you should not make quick
decisions. The most important thing is not to apologise, at least not before
you clarify everything. Otherwise you will only harm yourself.
frank, I suspect that either what you said was not, in fact, particularly
insulting, or that your former friend does not really feel insulted. It is
possible you both are the victims of the third party's intrigue. Anyway,
before taking decisions, you should make absolutely clear for yourself the
What exactly did you drink?
What exactly did you say?
Who of the 'grapevine' should be trusted
and who should not?
Why on earth, if your friend was so
insulted, did he not smash your face, challenge you to a duel, or at least say
something as offensive about you as you did about him?
opinion, independent of the answers to the above questions, the last thing you
should do is to apologise or, heaven forbid, take your words back. The first
thing you should care about is your reputation, not your relations with
someone. When you find out what you said, try to find, or invent, arguments to
support your thesis. Then take a few drinks again and state your arguments
publicly. Once you have entered this discussion, it is too late to retreat -
otherwise people will know they cannot rely on your words.
to meet your former friend (preferably, publicly) and tell him, quoting
Aristotle, that "Plato is my dear friend", but the Truth is dearer. I strongly
recommend taking a few drinks before the meeting.
be more careful about what you say. Good luck and may God Almighty help you!
Put questions to the text.
Make a plan.
Give Russian equivalents to the following
to be none of oneТs bloody
to be sacrificed to the
demands of etiquette;
to apply for a subsidy to smb.
to fall out with smb.;
to make quick decisions;
to challenge smb. to duel
How do you understand Good Manners?
What is your own opinion to the words:
be more careful about what to say?
What sort of person are you?
1. Put Y for
Yes, N for No, and S for Sometimes
Are you generally aware of other peopleТs feelings?
Do you find it difficult to meet people?
Do you frequently make people laugh?
Does your mood change often and suddenly?
When decisions have to be made do you think first of yourself?
Can your friends trust you and depend on you?
Do you generally like other peopleТs company?
Are there lots of things you want to do in your life?
Can you usually understand other peopleТs point of view?
Do you worry and think too much about detail?
Are you usually quite a happy smiling person?
Are you interested in other people and their business?
(___) Do you sometimes not tell the truth
because you donТt want to hurt someoneТs feelings?
2. Match these adjectives with
the questions above:
Example: (b) - shy
3. Which of these do you think
are positive, and which negative qualities?
4. What are the opposites of
Ex. 1 Express your opinion on
the problem, give your reasons.
me, all opinions are controversial: some writers recommend abstaining from
drinking alcohol, and to drink only orange juice, while others approve of
drinking beer or alcohol. To me they both sound dumb and I accept neither
course, it's beyond question that most of us can't avoid drinking, especially
if you are a shy person, a few drops will help you feel more confident and
sociable. Maybe it sounds strange, but my motto is that everything should be
done in moderation. In my opinion, it's possible for a person to start
drinking, if he is of age, of course. And I can prove it.
favourite book The Practical Psychology for Boys or How to Become a Real
Man, the author says that 80 percent of alcoholics began drinking in their
teens. She also says that teenage alcoholism forms 2-4 times faster than with
adults; the key point, I think, is how often and in what amount. Of course, it
is not good to drink every day or week, and not to get drunk, but to cheer up
and to feel a bit more relaxed.
understand, some will find my theory too restrictive and in no way linked to
reality. Who cares?
of beer, it seems strange, but the views of medical researchers are
contradictory. Some of them say that beer is good to prevent cancer; at the
same time others say that constant consumption of beer provokes hormonal
changes in the human body. Pavel Stroilov describes beer-drinkers as (usually)
big, good-natured, calm, and not clever; it's just the result of feminism. On
the other hand, female beer-drinkers state they want to be more masculine and,
as a matter of fact, they will never be able to give birth.
why I say: Be moderate, and everything will be OK! Your life is what you make
Ex. 2 Give you interpretation
of the word УsincerityФ
Sincerity Can Be Destructive
One of my
friends, Vanya, is a very open-hearted person. Once he faced a problem: he was
unfaithful to his girl-friend Katya. It is not a very unusual situation in
life, but for him it was a big problem. He is a really open and honest person,
and he didn't want to hurt his girlfriend or the other girl either. So he
started discussing the problem with his friends. Being open and sociable, he
has a lot of friends, most of whom were also Katya's friends. None of them
likes gossip, and nobody told Katya about Vanya's problem. But as his
relations with the other girlfriend were very candid, he told her everything
himself. She found out the truth, including the fact that all her friends knew
the story. As a result she lost trust in her boyfriend and almost all her
this story well illustrates my point of view - a person should be discrete.
Intimate relations should not become a matter of discussion with other people
- even if those people are your best friends - because they haven't any
business in your bedroom.
also should not know about your relations at home, about your own emotions,
and so on. And if you make a mistake, you should not forget that it is your
own mistake. If you have friends, they shouldn't try to correct your mistake,
and you should not lay blame on someone else. Of course, this way of behaviour
is more difficult than the method of collective decision-making in very
personal issues; but I think it is more honest. Even though Katya might say
that Vanya should have been absolutely sincere with her, it would be much
better for her not to know the truth. That truth was destructive for their
relations. Surely, to keep silent would be difficult for Vanya, but it was he
who made a mistake, so his difficulties would be a fair punishment.
Maria Stroilova, a first year student
Ex. 3 Read the text and answer
Do you agree with the authorТs idea of
having Уsomething for yourselfФ or not?
Do you believe the authorТs pride should
be sufficient to improve her inner world?
Sum up the authorТs view.
What would you ask the author if you meet
Cause of Pride
early age I dreamed to play the guitar. And some time ago my mother
gave me a guitar as a birthday present. I was happy. I began to study playing,
and it proved to be quite easy. I like rock music. Russian rock has a very
special character: the music is not the most important thing for our rock
stars, the lyrics are much more significant. Therefore, if you wish to perform
only the main musical theme, all you need to know are a few chords and that's
enough. Things become even simpler because you can find all the necessary
chords on the Internet.
I understood that I can play almost every song I love. My friends asked me to
play songs at our parties, and it was no problem, even though I had never
tried to play this or that song before. I was greatly surprised when some
months later I found myself playing only classical guitar pieces and nothing
more. I tried to understand why and discovered a very interesting thing.
when I am playing guitar I present you the songs which I sing. If they are not
my favourite songs, I don't want to sing them because it is simply boring. But
if I really love a song, I usually don't want to share it with anybody. I can
play it only for myself, and when I do that I feel that the song is really
mine. It doesn't matter that its real writer is another person, not me.
normal thing: when a group of people, even close friends, listen to a song
some like it but some don't. And very often people start arguing about the
song. But I want to hear nothing unfavourable about things I love. Above all,
any comments about my favourite songs are, in my opinion, very stupid.
Everything has been already said by the writer, and all we can do is to listen
and to feel.
surprised again. I used to think myself to be a generous person who likes to
share things with everybody. So I began to consider myself and understood:
that's right, I am generous. But I don't want to share everything. And I don't
think this is wrong. Every person has some things which belong only to him. It
may be a hobby, work, or even an academic subject. And if anybody wishes to
come too close to those things, one runs away.
opinion if you haven't this "something for yourself you are not a person, you
are only a part of a mass. The things which are kept only for yourself form
your inner world. And if you don't want to share some things with anybody,
even your closest friends, you should not feel ashamed, you can be proud, of
Ex. 4 Read the text and
discuss the status of being leader
a freshman this year. I faced a problem which, in my opinion, is important for
not only first-year students: what should you do when you are a newcomer to a
group of people?
went to the first classes at the university I found myself in quite a
difficult situation - I hadn't attended two group meetings arranged some days
before classes really started, considering those meetings to be unnecessary
for studies. As a result, when I came to the university I saw a group, not a
bunch of individuals. So, I had to understand the nature of that group and
find my place in it.
I am in
the psychology department. As psychology is not very popular among boys, there
are five boys out of 30 people in our group. I immediately saw three leaders,
all of them girls. The features of a true leader seem to have little to do
with the intellect. I watched one of the leaders during a half-hour break. She
found a very strange way to entertain herself: she spent all her time
listening to music from her friends' mobile phones. And she is a leader
nevertheless. Our second leader is a typically beautiful girl. The third one
not to fight for a leadership position. I see no good in being the fourth
leader. It is evident that the leaders are doomed to struggle for their
positions during the five years we are going to be at the university. I don't
think it is funny. So I preferred to wait in the shadows for about two weeks.
But it is impossible not to express yourself at all. I chose a very simple way
for expressionЧ to study. As a result, the stupid girl understood that she has
nothing to do with me. The clever girl tried to make friends with me because
she thinks it to be more interesting and useful than to try to subject me.
thing happened with the boys. They are a minority in our group, and the girls
launched a real battle for them. I already have got a boyfriend who is at
another university; so I wasn't interested in the boys of our group. But I had
a challenge to show our girls that I wasn't going to take part in the
competition. I am happy: my elder brother is a third-year student at our
university and I know a lot of his friends very well. So I asked one of them
to act as my boyfriend for a day within the university. He agreed because his
girlfriend studies at another place, and proved a genial actor. Any girl would
understand that I am not her rival.
widespread idea proved to be true: if you don't try to demonstrate that you
are something other than yourself, it will be easy to find your own place in
Agatha, 1st year MUH student
Ex. 5 Did the author choose
the right way for expression Уto studyФ?
Ex. 6 What would you advise
your friend if he wanted to be a leader?
Ex. 7 Do you agree that the
features of true leader seem to have little to do with the intellect?
Ex. 8 Is it possible not to
express yourself at all?
Ex. 9 What should you do if
you are a newcomer to a group of people?
Ex. 10 Do you agree itТs time
you should think about your character and understand yourself better?
Ex. 11 Are you satisfied with
the role you are now in your class? What accounts for such a state of things?
Ex. 12 Say what factors in the
authorТs opinion effect you? Give your own comments.
Ex. 13 Say what you would do
in the authorТs place?
Ex. 14 Sum up the text.
Express your opinion on the problem.
Ex. 16 Read the text and
comment on the following points:
can make a mistake. Sometimes we can say things which make sense only in a
certain moment: they are linked to only this or that situation, often to an
offence. So, after that we have to understand that we were wrong and should
apologise. We all need to forgive and to be forgiven. But some-times it is
very difficult and we can even end a relations nip because of fear.
psychologists have developed advice for such situations. The rules are the
forgive takes a decision.
Don't throw an error back in someone's
face at a later date. Don't use it as ammunition in an argument.
Don't seek revenge or retribution. It
will only extend the pain.
Try and understand the reason for the
Remember that forgiveness doesn't mean
you condone the hurtful behaviour.
Show true contrition and remorse for
the pain that you've caused.
Be willing to make a commitment to not
hurt someone in the same way again.
Accept the consequences of the action
that created the hurt.
Be open to making amends.
patient. Being able to forgive often takes time.
Ex. 17 Read the text and
answer the questions:
Do you agree with the authorТs judging
from your own experience and observations?
What would Dave say if were in Russia?
This is a
letter from Dave. Dave is an American exchange student in Great Britain, who
is living in Frank's home, while Frank is staying in the U.S. with Dave's
are you getting along in the States? I'm having a wonderful time here in
England with your family and friends. Everyone is so friendly, and hospitable.
They all welcome me into their homes and treat me as one of the family.
very surprised by English people. I thought they would all be very
conservative and traditional. Instead I've found them very open to new ideas.
I also thought English people would be rather shy. But most people seem very
outgoing and self-confident, almost as much as Americans. I find the English
very tolerant too. Nobody here seems to mind very much how you dress or what
you say. Of course, there are some narrow-minded people too. But I don't think
there are as many as there are back home in the States.
think of you in my home and what you must be thinking about Americans. I
imagine you think we're too hard-working and too materialistic. I never
realised how much Americans talk about money, until I came to Britain. And you
probably also think that Americans are very rude compared with the British. I
don't think we're really so rude, it's just that we sometimes forget to use
all those polite phrases like "do you mind" and "could I" and "may I".
difference I have noticed is that the British don't seem as optimistic as
Americans. In America we always think we can change things and make them
better. But I get the feeling that the British have a rather pessimistic view
feeling lazy, so that's all I'm going to write now. I look forward to hearing
your impressions of the US.
According to Dave, do these words best describe British people (B) or American
What characteristics do people from other
countries think people from your country have?
Do you sometimes feel shy? In what
In what ways do you think your parents'
generation is different from your generation?
Are you optimistic or pessimistic about
the future? Why?
Have you ever been to a foreign country?
What do you think of the people in that country?
activities and speak about BobbyТs traits. You can learn about a story
character (1) by the way he thinks, (2) by the way other characters think of
him, and (3) by the way other characters treat the person. Read the story
on the bench. His team trailed in the basketball game by one point. Only one
minute of playing time remained. Bobby thought to himself, УIТm sure we can
beat this team. I know we can!Ф Suddenly the coach called: УBobby, replace
BrianФ. BobbyТs teammates smiled when Bobby ran on the court. They knew they
could count on him in times like this. The home crowd cheered loudly for their
hero Bobby. The other team worried when Bobby entered the game.
seconds left in the game, a player passed the ball Bobby. He pushed the ball
into the air. Whoosh! It soared through the hoop. Two points! BobbyТs team had
won the game.
people in the stands stood up and clapped their hands for Bobby. The coach,
wearing a big smile on his face, shook BobbyТs hand tightly. The other players
of the team carried Bobby off the court. Bobby had come through again.
Circle the letter next to each correct answer.
1. Bobby felt Е
about the game.
teammates Е Bobby.
3. BobbyТs coach Е
d) counted on
4. The home crowd
5. The other teamЕ
b) laughed at
6. A word to
describe Bobby is Е
for a magazine, as a writer.
woman in the photo is over 100 years old. Imagine that you have been sent to
interview her for an article for the magazine. You are to prepare a character
sketch of the woman in which you try to give information about her past life
and its high points, as well as an account of her present life and interests.
must bring out aspects of her personality in order to present her as a
"person" and not just the subject of a magazine article.
Make a list of questions that you intend
to ask the 100-year-old woman.
Answer the questions in the form of notes
you have taken in your conversation with the woman.
Invent personality traits for the
interviewee and list them for later use.
Combine your notes and the personality
traits to form a short magazine article that is a biographical sketch of the
Give a title to the sketch.
OPTIONAL ACTIVITY: Using
a classmate to play the part of the 100-year-old woman, work together as a
team to dramatize the interview. Give your imagination free rein.