Fashion and Style
FASHION AND STYLES
fashion? Well, it's the way of dressing or behaving that is usual or
popular at a certain time. Every fashion goes through three stages: at first
it is different, it may be new and exciting, shocking and surprising. Then it
becomes popular, and the original idea is imitated. Finally it becomes boring
and out of date as a new fashion starts.
fashionable says something about you. It means that you know what is smart,
and suggests that you are up to date in other ways. Some changes in clothes
have been practical and reflect the different way that we live. Today fashion
is a big industry.
fashions shock, it is usually more than clothes that are changing. In the
1920s people were shocked when women cut their hair short, and wore short
skins. At this time more women began to work outside the home and started to
the 1970s may young people shocked and frightened the older generation. They
cut their own hair and styled it themselves using everything to make their
hair stiff: sugar, toothpaste, butter, oil, glue, soap, orange, juice, and
even egg. The clothes were also DIY and young people spent hours tearing their
jeans and packets and creating the new look with pins, studs, bicycle
chains, and paper clips. They were the punks and followed their own fashion
and style. By 1977 punk music (loud, fast, tuneless which shocked with violent
lyrics) was at the top of the hit parade and the punk look was high fashion.
Fashion designer Zandra Rhodes produced a collection of clothing based
entirely on the punk look. Today's haircuts are far more exaggerated and
colourful than anything existed during the early punk era. These haircuts have
been created for American cameras and Japanese television crews, and punk
rockers are one of the few youth movements to have sold themselves in this
Hairstyles, like clothes, follow fashion. Many past fashions were not
practical and showed that the people who wore them were wealthy, and didn't
have to work. Hair can be long, or short, coloured, plaited or worn in a bun.
You can curl it or cover it with a wig. Every gentleman in the 18-th century
wore a wig.
beginning of the 20-th century, very young girls and boys wore dresses and had
long hair. Teenagers dressed like adults. Men's clothes have also changed a
lot. Brightly coloured embroidered dresses in the 16-th, silver buckles on
shoes and sleeves with lace in the 17-th. Man could be fashionable because he
was rich. However, not every fashion started with the wealthy. Trousers were
worn by the working men as well. Now men wear dark suits and patterned tie.
World War 1, women's fashions changed much more than men's. In the 1920s in
Europe many young women began to wear shorter skirts and very short hair.
Since Dior launched the New Look in 1947, women's fashion has continued to
want to know the secret of being well-dressed? Here is some practical advice.
buy your clothes, go in for simple, well-cut suits and dresses that will look
'right' for almost any occasion. Concentrate on styles that are not expensive
but elegant and remember that the keynote of all good dress-making is
dress is a perennial 'must' with women. The short evening dress is a much
better buy than the long one and it can look quite as glamorous.
I. Divide the following
adjectives related to style into those which are generally positive (P) and
frumpy, stylish, dowdy, drab,
chic, elegant, classy, scruffy, cosmopolitan, sloppy, sophisticated, over the
top, tacky, tasteful, gaudy, tasteless, unkempt, disheveled
Which of these adjectives can
only be used to describe clothes, or people, or both?
Which can be used
Are there any adjectives which
cannot be used in the following sentences?
She is wearing a (N) _________ pair of
Her clothes are very _________.
He is a really __________ person.
He is really __________.
II. Choose the best
alternative to complete these sentences.
There is something reassuring about Lisa.
She has such a lovely _________.
a) style; b) manner; c)
She’s got a lot of style. It is not only
her clothes or anything like that, it’s just that she ________ well.
a) walks; b) moves; c) goes
He’s always careful about what colours he
wears and he’s very well-groomed. I think that’s why he comes _________ as
such stylish person.
a) up; b) through; c) across
I like that sweater. That colour _________
very well with your hair.
a) fits; b) suits; c) goes
That colour ________ you perfectly; you
ought to wear blue more often.
a) suits; b) matches; c) fits
I don’t know why I bought this jacket.
It’s not really _________.
a) me; b) myself; c) I
There’s a trend amongst. Hollywood stars
at the moment to dress _________, perhaps because they feel guilty about
having so much money.
a) up; b) down; c) off
They don’t enjoy rock concerts and parties
much – they’re more _________ yoga and Jen Buddism.
a) out; b) into; c) up
III. Use the words and phrases
to discuss what is fashionable – in clothes, restaurants, music, free-time
activities – at the moment in your country.
the latest thing, trendy, all
the rage, in, the latest craze, out, slaves of fashion, haute couture
IV. Discovering the Past
CENTURY ENGLISH WOMEN'S CLOTHING
the man's shirt, the linen shift is a woman's basic undergarment. It was made
in much the same fashion as the shirt, but with the addition of triangular
gussets beginning at the waist and widening to the hem. As with men's costume,
a white or off-white blouse may be substituted, providing that very little of
it will show. Otherwise, use a pattern for a nightgown that pulls on over the
head and fastens in the front. The only adaptation necessary is to cut it
fuller in front and gather it into the neckband, which fastens with ribbon
petticoat could be made of a variety of fabrics; both linen and wool were
common in Plymouth Colony. These were ankle-length and fastened at the waist
with a drawstring or waistband. Any number from one to seven could be worn
depending on the social status of the individual.
petticoats will not be seen, or only from a distance, use muslin or some other
plain cotton or poly-cotton blend.
article of clothing is made of a bodice and skirt sewn together at the waist.
It fastens down the front with buttons, hooks and eyes, or ribbon ties. Some
vest patters, providing they have high-cut arm-holes, may provide a basis for
the bodice pattern. Portraits of the period are useful for creating variations
in the neckline and treatment of the waist. This is a style which is somewhat
old-fashioned by 1620, and is more likely to be worn by older women.
is ankle-length and gathered onto a waistband or placed on a drawstring. They
are always made of wool and it is important to remember that these skirts were
full, so a sufficient amount of material should be used for each skirt.
fitted, long-sleeved upper garment could He made of either linen or wool. The
most common type had shaping created by gussets at the hips. It will be
necessary to work from a pattern taken from a period garment. These are
available from several of the books listed in the bibliography.
close-fitting white linen cap covered the hair. It is gathered at the back of
the top seam with enough room to accommodate the hair bun and fastens at the
base of the neck with a drawstring inserted into the casing.
is essentially a large rectangle of cloth, either wool or linen, placed on a
drawstring, such as twill tape. The apron was then gathered in the front to
expose the skirt, or drawn around to protect it while performing messy tasks.
Aprons occasionally had a bib. Aprons should be hemmed to just above the
bottom of the skirt.
Discuss the clothes in the
past, give your opinion.
V. What constitutes “Style”?
In groups, discuss and put the
following in order of importance. Add anything else you think is important.
(__) clothes and accessories
(__) hairstyle and cut
(__) posture, movement
(__) facial expression
VI Points to ponder:
1. Style is knowing who you
are, what you want to stay, and not giving a dawn
2. Enemy Number One both to
chic and charm is untidiness.
3. Not every fashion starts
with the wealthy.
4. Being fashionable says
something about you.
VII. Say how you understand
That’s another pair of shoes.
Clothes do not make a man.
Clothes name the man.
Good clothes open all doors.
Over shoes, over boots.
VIII. Translate from English
CHILDREN'S CLOTHING IN THE 17-th CENTURY
child's cap can be made by enlarging the pattern for a fitted baby's cap which
ties under the chin. It can be made either of linen or wool.
apron may be sewn in the same fashion as the woman's, or gathered onto a
narrow waistband with a bib attached.
child's gown is an ankle-length garment which laces closed in the bank. The
bodice has a plain round neck, full-length sleeves, and joins the skirt at the
natural waist. It may be made of either linen or wool.
or shift, cloak, shoes, stockings and hat for a child are essentially small
versions of adult clothing. See the appropriate sections above.
IX. Translate the text using a
ли голливудская актриса Николь Кидман, что после «самого страшного события
своей жизни» — так она назвала развод с мужем актером Томом Крузом — в ее
жизни наступит череда побед. Потеряв личное счастье, она обрела удачу в жизни
творческой. За какие-то полгода она получила премию «Золотой глобус», свой
первый «Оскар» за роль писательницы Вирджинии Вульф в фильме «Часы», на
Бульваре звезд была открыта ее личная именная звезда.
теперь добавился титул «Идол моды», который присудил ей совет модельеров
Америки. 450 дизайнеров, владельцев дорогих магазинов и журналистов, пишущих о
моде, единогласно решили, что Николь Кидман оказывает огромное влияние на
современную моду. Исполнительный директор совета модельеров Питер Арнольд
считает, что у актрисы есть врожденное понимание того, как надо одеваться, а
главное, она смогла создать свой элегантный и неповторимый образ. Кидман умеет
носить не только роскошные вечерние платья. Простая, повседневная одежда,
например джинсы и свитер, смотрится на ней также шикарно, стильно. Новый титул
чрезвычайно обрадовал Николь: «Я могу получать сколько угодно призов за
творческие успехи, но «Идол моды» — очень женский и трогательный приз, любая
женщина на моем месте была бы счастлива». Не все знают, что Кидман в детстве
страдала от многих комплексов — за высокий рост ее звали «шваброй», за
непокорные рыжие волосы — «морковкой», теперь же 35-летняя актриса считается
одной из самых красивых дам Голливуда.
В разные годы
лауреатами премии становились такие звезды, как Одри Хепберн, Софи Лорен,
Элизабет Тейлор. Николь Кидман совершенно справедливо заняла место в их ряду.
X. Find the picture of your
favourite actor or actress and describe them.
XI. Read the text and write
down all the new words and then make a plan for short retelling.
Changing Face of Fashion
we realize it or not, our daily decisions as to what we will wear are shaped
at least to a degree by fashion. Ultimately, the forces of fashion largely
determine what is available to buy. Even items of clothing that we now take
for granted were once the latest style. The man's dress shirt and necktie, for
instance, became the fashion rage over a century ago. And the woman's sweater
became an established style back in the 1920's.
desires fuel the fashion industry — novelty and conformity. Nearly everyone
likes to wear something new. That is why we sometimes buy clothes, not because
an older garment has worn out, but simply because we want a change. At the
same time, we do not want to look out of place, so we buy clothes that conform
to some degree to the style worn by our associates. Over the centuries the
clothing industry has catered to — and sometimes exploited — these desires for
novelty and conformity.
a style, designers use five basic elements: colour, silhouette, drape,
texture, and line balance (or patterns, on the surface of the material). The
options available to designers and dressmakers in all five areas have
multiplied over the years. In ancient Egypt, for example, locally produced
see-through linen was the fabric of choice, and it was ideal for a warm
climate. But since linen could not be dyed easily, it was usually just one
colour — bleached white. Still, Egyptian fashion designers pleated the
material so that their clothes had a pleasing drape and silhouette. Thus one
of the world's most enduring styles was born.
first century C.E., new fabrics and colours were available. Romans imported
silk from China or India, although the expense of transport made woven silk as
costly as gold. Another fashionable material was dyed wool from Tyre, a
kilogram of which could cost 2,000 denarii — six years' wages for a typical
worker. The new dyes and materials enabled wealthy Roman women to wear a stola
— a long, ample outer garment — of blue cotton from India or perhaps yellow
silk from China.
new styles arose periodically, in past eras a costly garment would likely be
in fashion for a lifetime. Changes came slowly and usually affected just the
nobility. With the coming of the industrial revolution, however, fashion
became much more relevant to the common people.
the 19th century, whole industries arose to clothe both the rich and the poor.
Mechanized cotton and woolen mills proliferated, and the price of fabrics came
down. Because of sewing machines, clothes could be produced more cheaply, and
new synthetic dyes offered a much greater choice of colours.
and technological changes played an even greater role in clothing the masses.
In Western Europe and North America, people had more money to spend. In the
1850's, women's magazines appeared, and soon thereafter department stores
began to offer ready-to-wear clothes in standard sizes. Also in the 19th
century, Charles Frederick Worth introduced fashion shows, using live models
to spark the interest of prospective clients.
20th century, new synthetic fibres, such as rayon, nylon, and polyester,
offered manufacturers a wider array of fabrics. Computerized designs made it
easy to produce new styles, and because of globalisation, new fashion trends
could appear almost simultaneously on the streets of Tokyo, New York, Paris,
and Sao Paulo. Meanwhile, designers and manufacturers have found new ways to
promote their products. Today young people have taken the place of the wealthy
as the most ardent fashion enthusiasts. Every month, millions of them buy new
clothes, arid the trade produces hundreds of billions of dollars' worth of
clothing a year*.
* In one
recent year, the value of garments produced was estimated at $335 billion.
The Image Makers
centuries kings and nobles' set the standards of dress. In the 17th century,
King Louis XIII of France decided to wear a wig to cover his baldness.2
Before long, European nobles were shaving their heads and wearing wigs — a
style that lasted more than a century.
19th century, women's magazines brought fashion trends to the fore3
and even offered inexpensive patterns4 so that women could make
their own clothes. In the 20th century, as movies and television gained
popularity, stars became international idols and set trends in fashion.
Popular musicians too sported5 radical styles, which many youths
quickly imitated. Today, little has changed, as advertisers make effective use
of fashion shows, glossy6 magazines, billboards,7 shop
windows, and television advertisements to generate a demand for new clothes.
1 nobles —
to the fore
— на передний план
6 glossy -
- рекламный щит
XII. Describe the pictures.
Prepare your own one for discussions.
ancient Egyptian linen garment was one of the world's most enduring fashions.
ancient Rome women wore a stola.
past eras a costly garment would likely be in fashion for a lifetime.
industrial revolution made it possible for common people to be more fashion