Fashion in Modern Society
is something we deal with everyday. Even people who say they don't care what
they wear choose clothes every morning that say a lot about them and how they
feel that day.
certain thing in the fashion world is change. We are constantly being
bombarded with new fashion ideas from music, videos, books, and television.
Movies also have a big impact on what people wear. Ray-Ban sold more
sunglasses after the movie Men In Black. Sometimes a trend is
worldwide. Back in the 1950's, teenagers everywhere dressed like Elvis
and other cultural icons have always influenced what we're wearing, but so
have political figures and royalty. Newspapers and magazines report on what
Hillary Clinton wears. The recent death of Diana, the Princess of Wales, was a
severe blow to the high fashion world, where her clothes were daily news.
folks in the 1700s pored over fashion magazines to see the latest styles.
Women and dressmakers outside the French court relied on sketches to see what
was going on. The famous French King Louis XIV said that fashion is a mirror.
Louis himself was renowned for his style, which tended towards extravagant
laces and velvets.
does fashion influence our lives ?
role does it play in Modern Society ?
to answer these questions in my report.
The history of fashion.
prehistoric clothing didn't hold much style it did exist and became the
beginning of fashion. The main purpose of prehistoric dress was to ward off
insects, protect the body from the environment, and for warmth. There is
evidence that a coarse type of fabric was woven. Apparel was merely squares of
textiles fastened across the shoulders and at the waist.
Egyptian style was also simple but held a great deal more beauty than earlier
clothing. Most Egyptian clothing was merely wrapped and tied. The main article
for men, although clothing was unisex, was the schenti, a wrapped loin cloth.
Women wore kalasiris, long clinging skirts that started underneath the breast
and went to the ankle. The Egyptians added beauty to their clothes with bright
dyes and jewels. Their main fabric was sheer, woven flax (linen); flax was the
principal crop along the Nile.
Minoans lived around the same time as the Egyptians but had a completely
different style of dress. The Minoans were one of the earliest cultures to
show a more complex design of clothing. Waists were bound with wide belts that
topped tiered skirts, flounced in rings . The bodices were cut so low that the
breasts were completely exposed. Minoans used linen, wool, or blends of the
two. They also used embroidarie techniques.
chiton (key-ton) was simply two rectangular pieces of fabric that were
fastened at the shoulder with fibulae. Fibulae were the first safety pins.
They were made from precious metal and often decorated with jewels. The chiton
was usually belted at the waist, left one shoulder exposed, or the side hung
open (see chiton picture). The Greeks took apart imported silk thread by
thread and re- wove it into an even more beautiful material. They used the
colors white, scarlet, purple, mustard yellow, indigo, and bright green.
Mariano Fortuny, born 1871 and died 1949, designed dresses using the same
style as the Greek chiton.
when one of Fortuny's designs surfaces at an auction, they start at $5,000.
This shows the impact of past fashions on today's society.
fashion resembles the Greek partly because Greece fell to Rome. Women wore a
stola, almost identical to the chiton, which was belted at the waist and
attached with fibulae. Men wore the toga, a large semi-circle made of wool.
The toga was 18 feet long and 5 1/2 feet wide at its widest part. It was worn
draped and wrapped with the right arm free. The right arm was the fighting
arm. The folds hung in place with weights and each fold had a name. The toga
identified the wearer by how it was draped. The toga was also a sign of Roman
citizenship, and being stripped of it meant losing all of one's rights.
Byzantine is one of the more unique styles of B.C. times. The Byzantines were
of eastern origin and resembled the Japanese and Chinese. Their garments
resembled coats. They wore straight tunics belted at the waist with scarves,
and the sleeves extended to the wrists. Both men and women of the Byzantine
culture wore pants under their tunics. Until this time, pants were considered
to be for barbarians. The use of rich, heavy textiles was common, even their
silks were thick.
Barbarism and Carolingian
Empire fell to barbarians around the 5th century. It wasn't until Charlemagne
tried to bring back power equal to that of the Roman Empire that we see
fashion escalate in changes. This period is known as the Barbarism and
Carolingian. Charlemagne lived in a colder climate, and although he was
royalty he preferred peasants' clothing; he often wrapped himself in sheep
hides. Because of the cold temperatures, both rich and poor dressed in wool.
Both men and women wore tunics. Underneath their tunics men wore leg
coverings, while the women wore long sleeved dresses.
early Christian people laced and tied much of their clothing. It is also
believed that the beginnings of chain mail were in the Carolingian period.
Middle Ages is also referred to as the Gothic Age. One of the most worn
garments to this time, by both men and women, was the bliaut. The bliaut was a
sleeveless pull-over that laced up the sides. The women wore bliauts over
tight bodices, and the men wore theirs as armor coverings. In this period,
sleeves were much wider, and capes, veils, chin straps, and head coverings
were often worn. The styles of the late 1960's closely resemble the Gothic Age
with the exception- of seams instead of laced and tied garments.
High Renaissance period, the time of the Eli2abethan Age and of Shakespeare,
patterns were being experimented with and styles were changing. The waist was
finally accented by boned bodices, the hips flared out, necklines dropped low,
and sleeves were padded in sections all the the way down the arm. The Spanish
originated farthingale was created at this time. The farthingale was thought
to have been worn to hide pregnancies. Another garment that looked like a
sleeveless robe was worn over dresses and formed almost a hunchback appearance
because of farthingale width at the hips.
Cavalier and Baroque
Cavaliers, living in the 17th century, wore breeches, mid-thigh length capes,
and wide-brimmed hats. This look is closely associated with the "Three
Musketeers". Lace was also very popular at this time. Men wore wide lace
collars, lace cuffs, and lace boot cuffs. Women also wore wide lace collars on
dresses with softer looks to them than those of the High Renaissance.
Cavalier styles were taken over by the wardrobe of King Louis XIV of France.
King Louis was said to have adored fashion and was always superbly dressed. He
would often change several times a day as well as ordering his court to do so.
He demanded that his mistresses dress exquisitely and be adorned in jewels.
Louis gave birth to petticoat breeches, his favorite style of men's wear.
Petticoat breeches were
full skirt that was separated in between the legs. He added ruffles and
ribbons to create a more elaborate look.
Louis XIV, Louis XV set the beginning fashions of the 18th century at a softer
look. Women's dresses sported the sacque look. The sacque style had tight
sleeves to the elbow that were attached by large ruffled cuffs. A cape looking
garment was attached to the back of the neck and hung to the ground like a
train. Panniers could first be seen in the 18th century. Panniers were made of
whalebone or cane and were a hoop worn around the waist to extend the hip area
of the dress.
The 19th century
time of the 19th century, due to the over-emphasized width of panniers, the
hoop style took over. The hoop was a much softer look. Men's pants extended to
their ankles. Tails and overcoats were also born into men's fashion at this
fashion, at the beginning of the 20th century, lost boned bodices and hoop
skirts. Women's apparel became softer and loose. Dresses resembled light robes
and spaghetti strap night gowns. Waist lines were either dropped or accented
with wide sashes. The most notable change is the death of layers upon layers
of under garments. Almost all of women's fashions from the 1910's to the
1940's were only one or two piece garments. World War I brought uniforms to
nurses and postwomen. Munition workers and tram conductors wore trousers and
Chanel's styles were first exposed in the 1920's. She was famous for her
colorless jackets, sweaters, pleated skirts, long shirts, and elaborate
dresses. She inspired designers like Christian Dior, who became a "fashion
god" in the late 1940's.
Throughout the 10's and 20's, clothing accented slenderness. Fashions gave a
peasant looking style. Many shirt designs had off-the-shoulder sleeves. The
cloche, a hat that looked like an upside-down flower pot, could be seen
everywhere. Women wore their hair very short and wavy.
brought a fancier look of dresses. The waist was tighter in all designs,
unlike the potato sack look of the earlier decades. Most dresses had thin
straps and were wrapped around the body elegantly.
dress for women usually consisted of a button-up jacket, a dress shirt, and a
straight knee length skirt. It was not unusual for women to wear pants at this
time. Aside from wearing pants in factories, women wore them with dress shirts
daily (Howell 126-170).
40's fabric shortages, due to World War II, gave way to a coarse rewoven
woolen fabric. Only several colors of the material were used to cut down on
waste-age. The solution to this was the Utility dress. Several designs could
be bought in twelve different colors to avoid plainness. After the war, men
could be seen in double-breasted suit coats and straight leg suit pants (Cawethorne
The Dior Revolution
Dior's designs were dubbed "the New Look" and were adored by women around the
world. Dior's designs included petticoats, tight bodices, "wasp waists", and
soft shoulders (shoulder pads had dominated the early 40's). With the war over
and the fabric available to make Dior's creations, he just kept designing.
From the time that the "New Look" came out until his death in 1957, these ten
years came to be known as "the Dior Revolution" (Cawethome 106-167).
Famous fashion designers.
in 1978, Versace is one of the world's leading international fashion houses.
The Italian parent company of the Versace Group, Gianni Versace S.p.A.,
designs, markets and distributes luxury clothing, accessories, fragrances,
makeup and home furnishings under the various brands of the Versace Group.
These brands include: Versace, Versus, Versace Jeans Couture, Versace Classic
V2, Versace Sport, Versace Intensive, Versace Young and Palazzo Versace.
Style Department employs an exceptional group of designers and stylists who
work in teams specifically dedicated to each individual line. All of these
teams operate under the close supervision and guidance of Creative Director,
Donatella Versace. To ensure the highest quality, all Versace products are
crafted by carefully selected manufacturers. Versace collections are
distributed through a network of 240 exclusive boutiques, over 150 dedicated
spaces in major department stores and duty-free areas, as well as a number of
selective multi-brand boutiques in 60 countries.
Versace Group directly employs 1,500 people and provides indirect labor for an
additional 5,000 worldwide.
of the l960's.
things, bright embroidery, natural fabrics. Smartly and comfortable at the
continues to expand its global presence by opening a number of new stores
September 2000, Gucci reopened its newly renovated Fifth Avenue Store - the
largest Gucci Flagship store in the world.
Chanel style, unique at the beginning of the 20th century, is still modern
sexy and ultra cool, Chloe is a paradox of both feminity and romance infused
with a street-cred edge. She's fun, she's flirtatious, she's at the forefront
of the scene. You've seen her around, she's a girl about town.
colours, ethnic motives and the naturalness of the forms.
led interrogation of three age categories of people: teenagers, adults and
pensioners. They were asked following questions :
much time do you spend choosing what to wear?
often do you follow trends in fashion?
3. Do you
like to watch fashion magazines?
4. Do you
often help other people to find their style?
you like to be a fashion designer?
much time do you spend in front of the mirror?
do you buy new clothes?
8. Do you
prefer beauty or comfort?
9. Do you
like to attract attention?
10. Is it
difficult to attract people without smart clothes?
often do you go to fashion shops?
do you usually improve your mood?
following fashion a caprice?
14. Is it
difficult for you to follow fashion?
you judge by appearance?
the answers received during interrogation, I have made a diagram
basis of the diagram I have made a conclusion, that as people become older
they show less interest in fashion. There are a lot of reasons for such law
and the most spread ones are health, free time and money. Teenagers are more
healthy and have more free time than two other categories. In most cases young
people are sponsored by their parents.
the contrary have more money than younger group but they are not so healthy
and free. Pensioners have much free time but little money and bad health.
Clothes separate people into groups.
is revealing. Clothes reveal what groups people are in. In high school, groups
have names: "goths, skaters, preps, herbs." Styles show who you are, but they
also create stereotypes and distance between groups. For instance, a
businessman might look at a boy with green hair and multiple piercings as a
freak and outsider. But to another person, the boy is a strict conformist. He
dresses a certain way to deliver the message of rebellion and separation, but
within that group, the look is uniform. Acceptance or rejection of a style is
a reaction to the society we live in.
is a language which tells a story about the person who wears it. "Clothes
create a wordless means of communication that we all understand," according to
Katherine Hamnett, a top British fashion designer. Hamnett became popular when
her T-shirts with large messages like "Choose Life" were worn by several rock
little of what you call frippery is very necessary towards looking like the
rest of the world."
Adams, letter to John Adams, May 1, 1780
many reasons we wear what we wear.
Protection from cold, rain and snow:
mountain climbers wear high-tech outerwear to avoid frostbite and
Physical attraction: many styles are worn
to inspire "chemistry."
Emotions: we dress "up" when we're happy
and "down" when we're upset.
Religious expression: Orthodox Jewish men
wear long black suits and Islamic women cover every part of their body except
Identification and tradition: judges wear
robes, people in the military wear uniforms, brides wear long white dresses.
apparel oft proclaims the man."
International Fashion Editor Cynthia Durcanin
is a state of mind. A spirit, an extension of one's self. Fashion talks, it
can be an understated whisper, a high-energy scream or an all knowing wink and
a smile. Most of all fashion is about being comfortable with yourself,
translating self-esteem into a personal style.
is a means of self-expression that allows people to try on many roles in life.
Whether you prefer hip-hop or Chanel-chic, fashion accommodates the chameleon
in all of us. It's a way of celebrating the diversity and variety of the world
in which we live. Fashion is about change which is necessary to keep life
interesting. It's also a mirror of sorts on society. It's a way of measuring a
mood that can be useful in many aspects, culturally, socially even
psychologically. At the same time, fashion shouldn't be taken too seriously or
you lose the fun of it.
you know what will be hot in the future?
collections in Paris, New York and Milan, and now London, typically set the
stage for the industry one year in advance. Though, I think the street is the
real barometer of style. More and more designers are drawing their inspiration
from life on the street. So once again, there is a link to personal style and
fashion. A teenager can throw something together without thinking about it and
it can trigger a new trend.
you choose what to wear in the morning?
depends on my day, mood and what's clean. If I have an important meeting or
presentation, I put more thought into what I will wear. But on my most days, I
dress to my mood which can range from funky to retro to classical. Then again,
there are days when my laundry basket dictates what I ultimately wear.
-Cynthia Durcanin works for Elle Magazine
Fashion is an endless popularity contest.
fashion is the style of a small group of men and women with a certain taste
and authority in the fashion world. People of wealth and position, buyers for
major department stores, editors and writers for fashion magazines are all
part of Haute Couture ("High Fashion" in French). Some of these expensive and
often artistic fashions may triumph and become the fashion for the larger
majority. Most stay on the runway.
fashions are close to impossible to trace. No one can tell how the short
skirts and boots worn by teenagers in England in 1960 made it to the runways
of Paris, or how blue jeans became so popular in the U.S., or how hip-hop made
it from the streets of the Bronx to the Haute Couture fashion shows of London
to see what's popular by watching sit-coms on television: the bare mid-riffs
and athletic clothes of 90210, the baggy pants of The Fresh Prince of Bel-Air.
But the direction of fashion relies on "plugged-in" individuals to react to
events, and trends in music, art and books.
perspective of costume history, it is plain that the dress of any given period
is exactly suited to the actual climate of the time." according to James
Laver, a noted English costume historian. How did bell-bottom jeans fade into
the designer jeans and boots look of the 1980's into the baggy look of the
1990's? Nobody really knows.
identified, fashions begin to change.
result of my research I found the importances of fashion. Fashion is needed to
keep us safe, tell us apart, express our bodies, and for our own enjoyment.
Still "glossy syndrome" is a serious problem. It is one of major illnesses of
the modern society. Colliding with perfect images, people aspire to change
their appearance and style. They forget about truly important qualities such
as individuality, mind, intelligence, etc. In fact designers create their
collections to emphasize one's individuality but not to make a cult of brand
name. And if you can't live without magazines or shopping, you should stop and
think a little - can clothes and diets make you truly happy? Will you be an
interesting person, if you look like Britney Spears?
is not a sense of life - it's just a medium for self-expression.
form, school №63